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INIFRNATIQNAI 



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ALU 










ALLOYS 



ALCOA 



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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 



PITTSBURGH o PENNSYLVANIA 




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COPYRIGHT 1936 

ALUMINUM COMPANY 

OF AMERICA 



ALCOA 




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FOREWORD 



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1_ here is a rapidly growing demand for infor- 
mation concerning the properties of aluminum 
— one of the newest of the structural metals. 

The number of alloys has grown to such an ex- 
tent that the designing engineer is sometimes at 
a loss to know which one to choose. No two of 
the alloys have identical properties and for each 
application some one alloy is best suited. It is 
also necessary to know the forms in which these 
materials are available and the sizes that are in 
commercial production. 

It is the purpose of this booklet to present in 
concise form some of the fundamental informa- 
tion concerning the alloys which are produced 
by Aluminum Company of America. 








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GENERAL INFORMATION 

Ihe most striking quality of aluminum, among its many use- 
ful properties, is the fact that it weighs about one-third as much 
as other commonly-used metals. This advantage is retained in 
its commercial alloys, some of which are actually lighter than 
pure aluminum. 

Combined with the low specific gravity of aluminum are man\ 
other desirable characteristics which have made aluminum the 
fifth most commonly-used metal today, both in point of tonnage 
and volume. Chief among these are: high resistance to the cor- 
rosive action of the atmosphere and a great variety of chemical 
compounds; high thermal and electrical conductivity; high re- 
flectivity for radiant energy, from the short wave lengths of ultra- 
violet to the longer waves of heat and electromagnetic or radio 
waves; and ease of fabrication. Aluminum can be welded by all 
commercial methods (See page 25). Its compounds are colorless 
and are without harmful action upon the human system. While 
ordinarily quite inert, at very high temperatures or in the presence 
of certain chemicals, notably strong alkalis, aluminum is a strong 
reducing agent and is used to reduce refractory metals from their 
ores and to remove gases from molten steel. 

While considering the properties of aluminum in relation 
to its various applications, attention should be called to the ad- 
vantages resulting from the lightness of the metal even in those 
cases where this quality has no direct bearing on the usefulness of 
the product. 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS * . « 



Comparisons of costs should be made on the finished article as 
made from the different possible materials, not on their relative 
prices per pound. Since the volume of metal commonly used will 
be substantially the same, the price per pound of aluminum should 
be divided by the ratio of specific gravities (approximately three 
for most of the common metals) when comparing the material 
costs. In addition, economies frequently result from the greater 
ease with which aluminum can be fabricated, the greater produc- 
tion and lower cost of distribution made possible by the lightness 
of the metal, and the ease with which the metal can be polished 

or otherwise finished. 

Frequently, these economies are more than sufficient to over- 
come an unfavorable cost comparison from the standpoint of 
metal value alone, as, for example, with common grades of steel. 
In such comparisons, the higher scrap value of aluminum when 
the article is finally discarded is always an advantage to be con- 
sidered in the choice of the metal to be used. 

Aluminum of commercial purity may contain up to one per 
cent of other elements, principally iron and silicon, a^ impurities 
This is the grade which is commonly used, although for certain 
special applications, metal of higher purity is required. 

Commercially pure aluminum in the annealed or the cast con- 
dition has relatively low mechanical properties ; its tensile st rengt h 
is approximately one-fourth to one-fifth that of structural si eel. 
The strength may be more than doubled by working the metal 
cold, that is, by strain-hardening, after the cast structure of the 
ingot has been broken down by hot working. This gain in str. gth 
is accompanied by a loss in the ductility of the metal; the forming 
qualities are decreased as the amount of cold working is increased. 

The addition of other metals to form alloys offers another mean 
of increasing the strength and hardness of aluminum. The small 
percentage of impurities in commercial aluminum is sufficient to 
increase the strength, compared with that of pure aluminum, 
about 50 per cent. 

The metals most commonly used in the production of commer- 
cial aluminum alloys are copper, silicon, manganese, magnesium, 
chromium, iron, zinc and nickel. These elements may be added 
singly, or some combination of them may be used to produce th 
desired characteristics in the resulting alloy. If the alloy is to be 

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ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « 



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manufactured in wrought forms, the total percentage of alloying 
elements is seldom more than six or seven per cent, although in 
casting alloys, appreciably higher percentages are frequently 
used. 

. The tensile strength of the aluminum alloys in the cast or the 
annealed condition varies, depending upon their composition, up 
to values about double that of commercial aluminum. The wrought 
alloys may have their strength further increased by cold working. 
The gain in strength which results from alloying and strain- 
hardening is accompanied by a decrease in the ductility of the 
metal, although the properties which result are more than ade- 
quate for a great variety of commercial applications. 

Some years ago, the discovery was made that certain of the 
aluminum alloys, when subjected to appropriate heat-treatment 
processes, showed remarkable increases in tensile and yield 
strength and hardness. The elongation, in some instances, was 
also increased over that of the annealed alloy. The combination 
of alloying and heat-treatment processes has made available a 
series of aluminum alloys having strengths comparable with those 
of structural steel, while retaining in large measure the character- 
istic qualities of the parent metal. Both wrought and cast alloys 
which respond to the heat-treatment operations have been de- 
veloped, but the improvement is more pronounced in the case of 
the alloys in which the cast structure has been broken up by 
working the metal. 

With the development of this class of alloys, the enumeration 
of desirable qualities of aluminum may be augmented to include 
excellent mechanical properties. "Aluminum" is used here in its 
popular sense, that is, not only commercially pure aluminum, but 
the light alloys in which aluminum is the principal constituent. 
The remarkable development in the aluminum industry, in the 
past few years, must be attributed to the strides which have 
been made in the structural applications of the light, strong 
alloys. 

The change in strength which is accomplished by the alloying 
of other metals with aluminum is accompanied by changes in 
the other properties of the metal. They are seldom, if ever, the 
same in the different alloys, with the result that several alloys 
may have substantially the same tensile strength, but differ 



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\LCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



widely in yield strength, resistance to corrosion, thermal and 
electrical conductivity, the ease with which they can be cast or 
fabricated, or in other qualities upon which their various applica- 
tions depend. For many purposes, considerations other than 
strength are the deciding factors in the choice of the material. 

The properties which are required in a material, as well as the 
qualities which may be sacrificed without serious handicap, vary 
widely with the use that is to be made of it. A considerable num- 
ber of commercial alloys has been developed, each of which is de- 
signed to meet the requirements of a certain type of application. 
The compromise, which is practically always necessary in choofi 
ing any material, is thus reduced to a minimum. 

The fabrication of an alloy into the products required in in- 
dustrial applications generally becomes more difficult as the me- 
chanical properties of the alloy are increased. The fabricating 
characteristics of a material are, obviously, reflected in its selling 
price, a factor which is usually of importance in the selection of 

material. 

The ease of manufacture varies with the nature of I he com- 
mercial manufacturing process; for example, some alloys havin 
valuable properties may be readily rolled into plate and sheet, bill 
present difficulties in the manufacture of tubing or forgings which 
would make their cost prohibitive. Other alloys may be de\ eloj d 
primarily to overcome such manufacturing problems. While alu- 
minum alloys having a wide range of mechanical properth are 
available in practically all the forms in which metals an pro- 
duced, not all of the alloys are available in all of these forms. The 
tables of commercial sizes for the various commodities on p 
55 to 89 indicate the alloys in which they are regularly manufac- 
tured. In some instances, other alloys can also be produced when 
required for specific purposes. Such cases should be taken up wit h 
the sales representatives of Aluminum Company of America 



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WROUGHT ALLOYS 

1 he wrought alloys of aluminum may be divided into two 
classes depending upon the manner in which their harder tempers 
are produced. One class comprises the alloys in which strain - 
hardening, by definite amounts of cold work following the last 
annealing operation, produces the varying degrees of strength and 
hardness. The alloys in the other class depend primarily upon 
heat-treatment processes to develop their higher mechanical 

properties. 

While there is a wide range of tensile properties in both classes 
of alloys, the highest combinations of strength and ductility 
available in the widest range of products are to be found in the 
heat-treated alloys. 

) Commercial Forms: Aluminum and its alloys are available in 

practically all of the forms in which metals are fabricated. The 
commercial sizes for some of the more commonly-used products 
are shown in the Appendix, as well as the alloys which are most 
commonly specified for the various forms. Aluminum Company 
I of America manufactures foil, flat and coiled sheet, and plate; 

bar, rod and wire; standard structural shapes; moldings and spe- 
cial shapes, both rolled and extruded; seamless drawn tubing in 
round, square, rectangular, streamline and special shapes; rivets, 
nails, screws, bolts, nuts, and other screw machine products; 
collapsible tubes; bus bar, electrical conductor cable and fittings; 
forgings; and fabricated apparatus, such as chemical equipment, 
fuel and storage tanks and shipping drums. 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 



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Reducing dead-weight without sacrificing structural strength, Don-combus- 
tible, shatter- and splinter-proof Alcoa Aluminum is widely used in aircraft 

construction. For structure, motive power, and accessorial 




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Sj ial, corrosion-resisting alloys 

made possible the construction of 

t his fast police patrol boat . 




Prom H to 10 tons lighter, Alcoa 
Aluminum hopper car \ t\ 

corrosion of sulfur i "(impound 




Because of the availability of economical special shap< 
lenf itself unusual 1) wreil to the construction of this \\i>\i ] 

lined train. 



\ IcOS Muminum 
but sai an 



Reducing the drag of dead-weight wherever mass is in motion, the 

light, strong alloys of Alcoa Aluminum hern fit trans portal iot n all 

its phases, whether on land, water, or in the air. 



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A LI \l I \ I \I COMPANY of \\\ IUCA 



Alloy Composition and Nomenclature: The allo^ produ< ed 

by Aluminum ( lompany of Amerii a in i be various vv rough I f< >rms 
are shown in Table 2 (in Appendix, star tin on p e l with theii 



nominal chemical compositions rhe alloys are desij ited b 
numbers followed by the letter ' to indicate thai ih»*> are 
used in i In* wrought condition. In ome few i ihr nu bei is 
preceded by 8 letter t<> indicate that it i a < om position modified 
somewhal from that ofthi 1 1 1 < » > which 1^ d< tted by in- iam 
number; I * »r example, V17S difFers from 17S in thai it coi lin 
smaller per* entages of the same hardening element 

The sy n ibol which de ignates the alio) composition is follow 
by one imlit ating the temper, bul separated from ii b^ a da i 
for example, >3S-T, meaning alloy No >3 in the wrought 
condition with a tamper <1< i^nated a I". 

Commercial!) pure aluminum, which <«»n up ! on< 

on i< I' i <•< I i na I 



cent of impurities and in this ense m i :••• < 



urul alloy designated by i L <* symbol 2S when in the wroughl 

form. 






l< ttifur Designations In the case <»t all il Hoys, th< 
inffol or billet i^ lirsl worked hoi to break don n the < i tri 



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The hot 



Hoiking ma> be followed b old working to [ii il di 
\*> the metal i> cold worked, ii >i in hardei ind ii 



mensions 

usually necessary i<» introdme aim <»[»< i itions to pi 

excessive hardening In the « ase of 1 1 oftei alloys, this m i • a 
be nee e u % except as a means ol on trolling th< amount oi 
work nccessarj t<» produce the desired temper. 

\ller ami 1 1 i 1 1 llif all'>\ ii in il> softest an I nmsl <lu 
condilion and i> ^aid to be in the ft Of aim I temper 



nated bj the symbol u O M I In 1 hard temper, desi 



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.1 h\ th 



•sMiibol 'It . i^ produced b\ <>ld working tin* metal tin- maxim un 
amount which is commercially practicable f oi the dill renl alloys. 
[n one class of alloys (2S, IS, IS, 52S , tempers in termedi sin 
the rangi >f tensile strength beta n th< ft and the hard (em- 

pcr> are produced by varying the amount of Cold rk iftei ait- 
n ding I he standard temper quarter hard t U . halt' h d 

( l 2 II ,ind three-quarter hard 4 H) provideag idat nofprop- 

rties sufficient f< ost commercial r [uirements. 

For these alloys, the temp« i ired ined by the tensil Qgtha 



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\\AA)\ A LI \\\\\ \\ and ITS \\AA)\ 






which result from cold working the alloy. In Ihe soft or am tie 
temper, the maximum strength is specified to insure thai th< in- 
nealing has been complete. For the harder temper- I be minimum 
tensile strength is specified with appropriate elongation require- 
ments to define the various tempers. 

In the case of the heat-treatable allo\ the symbol I is 

used to indicate that the metal is in the full} heat-treated temper 
and has the maximum strength developed b\ heat treatment. 

tor some of the alios s 1 1 7S-T, V17S-T, 24S-T this temper 
is obtained by a solution heat treatment followed b> Datura) 

ging at room temperatures. The solution heat treatment consists 

in bringing the metal to the appropriate high temp iIiih and 

quenching from this temperature in cold water. (See pag«- 36 
for discussion of practice and theor\ of this operation.) 

Son* >»i the alloys (51S-T, V51S-T, 53S-T) develop their lull 
strength, i.e., their "T" temper. onl> if the solution heat treat 
ment Is followed |>> a precipitation heat treatment. This con 
vjsiv in artificially aging tin* allo> at a temperature appreciabl 
higher than ordinary room temperature (1 . S Patent |..»ni ;i 



The ^Ninbol "\\ ui;in l>< used oid\ with liie>e alloys i<» desi 
the intermediate temper which results if the) are not subjected 
i o aging. 
This temper ifi sometim< called th< 'as quenched*' temper, but 

the name i- no1 Strictl) accurate as applied to 51S-W and IS \\ 

^\wi e these alloys undergo some spontaneous aging at room tent 
peratures after the) ha\c been quenched. The property shown 

the "W M tempei are those which result after the corn I agin 
is practically complete. Immediately after quenching the lensil 
and yield strengths are appreciably lower and the metal n 

subjected to more difficult forming oj rations than ir< p ibl 
after it has been allowed to ag> The practi i of qui hii ii 
mediately before forming is sometim* d in the < ase of 17S 

nd 24S, particularly in the c e of rivets, in ord< , take ad- 
vantage of the better workii qualities of th alio in t >ndi 

lion. Th< Igii then pro is in th*- finished ; nbl 

Strain-hardening may also be used as a m< of improving 
mechanical properti* I the heat-ti itable all< Relat 

small amount- of cold work done on tf all* in th< heal 
treat i tempei. I produce mart I increasea in their yield 



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ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 



strengths. The elongation is also quite sensitive to small amounts 
of strain-hardening, the reduction in this property being greater 
for small initial reductions in cross-sectional areas by cold work 
than for subsequent larger reductions. However, by careful con- 
trol of the amount of cold working, the yield strength may be 
greatly improved without too great sacrifice in the ductility of 

I ho alloy. 
The temper which results from strain-hardening this class of 

alloys after they have been heat treated is designated by the 

symbol "RT": for example, 24S-RT. The increase in tensile, 

shear and bearing strengths is relatively small. 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 

Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of the commercial wrought 
aluminum alloys differs only slightly from that of the parent 
metal. The greatest increase in this property, caused by alloying, is 
about three and one-half per cent, and some of the alloys in which 
magnesium and silicon, either combined or separately, are the 
principal hardening elements are actually lighter than pure alu- 
minum. The specific gravities are shown in Table 4, with the 
weights in pounds per cubic inch. The weights of the casting 
alloys are shown in Table 11. 

Electrical Conductivity: The electrical conductivity of alu- 
minum is lowered by the addition of alloying elements, the reduc- 
tion varying with the nature of the element and the amount add- 
ed. Heat treatment and mechanical working also influence this 
property to a marked degree. In Table I will be found the elec- 
Irical conductivities for the wrought alloys in their various 
tempers. 

Thermal Conductivity: Aluminum of a purity of 99.6 per cent 

has a thermal conductivity of 0.52 in c.g.s. units (calories per 
■ second, per square centimeter, per centimeter of thickness per 

degree centigrade), which is equivalent to 1.509 B.t.u. per hour 
| per square foot per inch of thickness per degree Fahrenheit. The 

thermal conductivities of some of the aluminum alloys are shown 

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in Table 4. 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « « « 







Structural detail showing Alcoa Aluminum sections used in constn 

botanical garden building. 




' / 



Vbove — Due to the li^hl weight of 
'Ins strong aluminum all<>> 5-yard 
dipper, the operating speed for a 
loading cycle is the sarin* as it for- 
merly was with smaller nil-steel di| 
pers. thus increasing the bourl> 

output 4:5 J . 



Right — Alcoa Aluminum AUn\ \o. 

17S-T made possible this 1 75-foot 
boom, which weighs, fuli\ rigged, 

000 pounds, or 17,000 pound- 
less than a standard 150-foot steel 

boom. 




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Thermal Expansion: The coefficient of thermal expansion of 
aluminum is slightly more than twice that of steel and cast iron 
(See Table 6). The alloys have coefficients the same or slightly 
less than that of pure aluminum, except those which contain rela- 
l ively high percentages of silicon in which the value is appreciably 
lowered. In spite of the dilference in expansion when subjected 
to thermal changes, composite structures in which both steel and 
aluminum alloys have been used have shown entirely satisfactory 
performance. 



Modulus of Elasticity: Young's modulus, which is the ratio of 
stress to strain in the elastic range, is approximately the same in 
aluminum and its commercial alloys. The average value for this 
constant is approximately 10,300,000 lb. per sq. in. The value 
may be increased somewhat by relatively large additions of al- 
ios ing elements. In fact, careful measurements in 24S alloy have 
given an average close to 10,500,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Because of the lower value of this constant as compared with 
that of steel, it is necessary to use deeper sections in aluminum 
alloys in order to maintain the same deflection characteristics 
when they are loaded as beams. Such redesign can be accom- 
plished to produce a structure having the same deflection under 
load and actually higher ultimate strength than would be ob- 
tained with structural steel, and at the same time to realize a 
saving in weight of more than a pound for each pound of alu- 
minum alloy used. 

The lower modulus of elasticity is an asset when impact loads 
are to be resisted since, other things being equal, the lower the 
modulus the greater the ability to absorb energy without perma- 
nent set. The lower modulus is also advantageous in reducing 
stresses produced by misalignment, settlement of supports, or 
other fixed deflections, accidental or intentional. 



Mechanical Properties: Typical average mechanical properties 
of the various wrought alloys are shown in Table 10. These values 
may be used in comparing the alloys with each other, or with 
| other materials, since typical properties are commonly quoted. 

Purchase specifications are based on the minimum values for 
those properties which are regularly determined in the routine 



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\LCOA AL1 MIM M and ITS ALLOYS 






control of commercial manufacturing operations. Tables showing 
these minimum properties which can be guaranteed for the va- 
rious commodities are also included in the Appendix. 

It will be observed that the minimum properties guaranteed 
for an alloy are not the same in all commodities or in all sizes of a 
given product . Since the type and dimensions of the test specimen 
specified by standard testing practices vary with the nature of 
the product or with its dimensions, some of the variations in th< 
guaranteed properties represent differences in the test rather than 
fundamental differences in the properties of the metal in the 
various commodities. In the case of rod which is tested in full 
section, the elongation is measured over a gauge length equal to 
four times the diameter of the rod in order to compensate for 
the effect on this properly of the variable cross section. 

Strain-Hardened Alloys: 1.1 has been slated previously thai th< 
production of the harder tempers of certain of the aluminum 
alloys is accomplished by strain-hardening, the different d ree 
of hardness being obtained by varying the per cent of reduction 
by cold work after the final annealing operation. 

Jn the manufacture of sheet, tubing and wire it is standard 
practice to \\ork the metal cold after the cast ingot has beei 

broken down hot to produce the hoi mill slab, the tube bloom or 

the rod, respectively. In these cases. Lhe amount of reduction 

can be carefully controlled b\ proper selection of roll settin <>r 

of die and mandrel si/ . The production of intermediate temper 

in\ol\es only the annealing of the stock al lhe proper size to 
produce the desired amount of si rain-hardening b> the cold fin- 
ishing operations. The only limitation is that the final size shall 

be enough smaller than the hot mill slab, lhe tube bloom or the 

rod to permit the necessary reduction to develop the d< red 

temper. 

In the manufacture of extruded products and in the rolling of 
plate, rod, bar and shapes, the metal is regularly produced fi >ru 
a hot ingot and is reduced to the desired size without intermediate 
cooling. Where closer tolerances or special surface finish is re- 
quired, rod and bar may be rolled oversize by an amount if- 
heient to permit a (old finishing operation. The amount of oold 
working is chosen from the standpoint of producing the desired 



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finish and, except in the smaller sizes, does not greatly alter the 
mechani* al properl \*>. 

During the process of manufai lure of these products, there ia 
ome cooling of tin- metal, the amount of cooling being greater, 
the thinner the finish ize of the material. There is some strain- 
hardening of the metal, ihe strength var>i from that of th 
annealed alio} for heav} sections to thai of thr half or three- 
. iu;ii i it hard temper for >m;ill sizes of rod or bar. For an) given 
size of product, ih<- manufacturing conditions are fairly uniform, 
and succeeding lots "I material will have substantially similai 



pi i ipen ies. 

While ii i possible in some i ases to produce these pi tu< ts in 
the strain hardened tempers l>> adopting special manufacturin 
methods ii i> preferable to obtain the highei strengths !>> i ho< 
ii,.. i h.inlrr ;iiif)\ instead oi spe< ifyinj i harder temper, tin- pi 
du( tion of which ma> entail prohibit ive mamif'a< turing costs 

Extruded shapes are produced bj forcii the solid m< il 
through a die having an aperture to produce the desired *hap< 
Since thi all<>\s an- more plastic « * ■ elevated temp« i atur< th( 
products are produ< I hot. Depending upon the lo) and ihe 
nature of the section, there is some variation in the i trusion 
conditions and consequently in the meehanii il properti< i the 
shap< - i struded. In the case ol 2S and > the guar an I 
tensile strength ■ >!' • \iruded shapes cannoi h»- hi-hn than thai 



i id. mnealed temper of the alloy, although higher values u] 
to those for the half hard tempei are frequently obtained. 

Extruded shapes in the heat-treatable alloys are usualh heal 
treated to develop the properties of their heat-treated temp< 

In the Vppendix, a table is included showing ih ipproximat 
tempers of representative sizes <>l' bar, rod, shap ami plate in 
the various alloys for which these products are supplied >- fa I 
ricated" (i.e., as rolled, as cold finished as extruded >ee Tabl 
39), In general, the ratio of yield strength to ultimate tensil 
strength is slightly lower in the "as fabricated" produ< ts than ii 
is in tin* corresponding temper produced 1>> cold working. 



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rhe choice among the relatively large number 



loice <>j n toy: 

of wrought aluminum alloys depends upon the qualities which are 

required for the particular application. While the mechanical and 



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» » » VLCOA \ LI \l I.M M and ITS \LMM> 



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ih world's Is d i|» bodies, made oi the iipbi >i ol 

Al< * AluimnuMi. hauled 25-ton loads up U% grades it Bouldei I 




\ * L UIII flool ii r) T.yO toil* of d* ;h1 w < jjjjjl und 

Ij« / quarter eutm to ii lif< of \\n brid^ ll alao laved th< 

pa I million and ■ b;df doll; i 



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\Ll MIMJM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 



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physical properties are shown in the tables contained in the Ap- 
pendix, the problem of making the best choice may be facilitated 
by a brief discussion of the alloys. In order to simplify the form 
of expression, 2S will be referred to as an "alloy" although it is 
commercially pure aluminum; it is an alloy only in the sense that 
it is aluminum containing up to one per cent of other elements as 
impurities. 

Commodities, such as sheet and plate, are available in prac- 
t ically all of the alloys except a few which were developed pri- 
marily for the production of forgings, machining rod or for other 
specific purposes. Experience has shown that the commercial re- 
quirements for tubing, rod, bar and structural shapes can be met 
adequately by a more limited group of alloys and the problems 
of manufacture as well as the choice by the user are thereby 
simplified. 

The alloys 2S, 3S, 4S and 52S comprise the group in which the 
harder tempers are produced by strain-hardening. They are 
listed in the order of increasing tensile strength for a given 
temper. For applications in which ease of forming by drawing, 
spinning or stamping is of paramount importance, and the re- 
quirements of the service which the part must perform do not 
impose the requirement of high strength, 2S or 3S is commonly 
specified. Because of their greater ease of manufacture, these 
alloys offer the advantage of lower cost. In any given temper, 3S 
is slightly more difficult to form l han 2S. The choice of alloy and 
of temper will depend upon the severity of the forming opera- 
tions. For some uses, the greater strength and stiffness of 3S 
make its choice desirable in spite of the slightly greater fabricat- 
ing difficulties. Both 2S and 3S sheet are used in the manufacture 
of drawn cooking utensils, bottle and jar closures, cosmetic con- 
lainers, and a variety of similar articles. Depending upon the 
depth of the draw, the temper of the sheet may vary from soft 
to three-quarter hard; the half hard temper is frequently speci- 
fied. The final choice must be based on the trial of samples on the 
tools which are to be used in commercial production. 

The alloys 4S (U. S. Patent 1,797,851) and 52S are much 



| stronger than 3S. In the quarter hard temper (4S-J4H, 52S-MH), 

their mechanical properties are appreciably higher than those of 
j 3S in the hard temper (3S-H). Although 52S has a higher tensile 

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MXOAALl MINUM and ITS VLLOYS 






strength than 4S, its yield strength is somewhat less in the strain- 
hardened tempers, and its forming qualities are decidedly better 
than those of the latter alloy. This fact, together with its ex- 
cellent resistance to corrosion and its high endurance Limit, ha^ 
caused the demand for this newest of the aluminum alloys to 
exceed that for many of the older alloys. 

In their harder tempers, both IS and 52S have yield strengths 
comparable with that of 17S-T. the most widely used of the heat 
treatable alloys, although their tensile strength and elongation 
are not so high. In the form of plate, rod and bar, which are nol 
regularly produced in the strain-hardened tempers, these alio} 
make available mechanical properties intermedial e between thoe 
of 3S and those of the stronger heat-treated allo\s. 



Flea t -Treatable Alloys: The heat-treatable allo\s present a 
wide range of properties to meet the varied requirements of the 
structural applications of aluminum products. The oldest and 
most generally used is ITS. It is manufactured in practically all 
of the forms in which metals are fabricated. A modification of this 
alloy containing lower percentages of the alloying elements, 
AITS, was developed to provide a material which would with- 
al and more severe forming in the heat-treated temper than i^ 
possible with ITS. The mechanical properties are lower, but it 
finds some use where the higher strength is not required. 

The allox 51S in its fully heat-treated temper (5IS-T) (U. § 
Patent 1,472,739) has a yield strength higher than thai of I ! 
but its tensile strength and elongation are appreciably lower In 
this temper, it is capable of only limited forming, but it is i idil 

workable in the quenched temper (51S-W). Difficult f'ormin 
operations may be performed on the alloy in the quenched temper 
(51S-W) after which the part may be aged at elevated tempera- 
tures to develop the higher strength of 51S-T. Because of ii 
greater ea-e of fabrication, it is sold at a price Lower than that 
of ITS and for many purposes its properties are adequate. 

The alloy 24S makes available a material having even high* 
mechanical properties than those of ITS. The tensile and yield 
strengths of 24S-T are approximately 8,000 lb. per sq. in. higher 
than tho>e of 1TS-T; in the case of the yield strength this repre- 
sents an increase of approximately 25 per cent. This is of par- 



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ticular interest since it makes possible the use of Alclad 24S 
sheet (See page 31), with higher design factors than are possible 
with the use of bare ITS sheet. This alloy is finding increased use 
in aircraft construction and in other structures where the maxi- 
mum strength combined with the minimum weight is required. 
Strain-hardened afler heat treatment, this alloy (24S-RT) has the 
highest strength of any of the commercial wrought aluminum 
alloys. 

For architectural use, an alloy was desired having the maximum 
resistance to the corrosive action of the atmosphere from the 
standpoint of retaining both its mechanical properties and its 
surface finish. The alloy should have good forming qualities and 
should have tensile and yield strengths superior to those of 3S 
alloy in the form of extruded or rolled sections. To meet these re- 
quirements, the alloy 53S (U. S. Patent 1,911,077) was developed. 
In a short time the use of the alloy extended beyond the applica- 
tion for which it was originally developed because of its excellent 
general qualities. For maximum resistance to corrosion (compar- 
able with that of 2S) either 53S or, in the case of sheet, 52S, is 
recommended where their mechanical properties are adequate. 
\\ here higher strengths are required, together with maximum re- 
sistance to severely corrosive conditions, Alclad 17S and Alclad 
2 IS are available in the form of sheet, plate and wire. 

J A I Ion US has been de\ eloped to provide a material having 

properties comparable with those of 17S-T, but with free-cutting 
machining qualil ies to make it more suitable for use in high-speed 
automatic screw machines. Experience in a number of plants ha> 
demonstrated that in 11S-T3 this result has been fully realized. 
Its yield strength is about one-third higher, although its ultimate 
strengl h is somewhat lower than that of 17S-T. In addition to its 
use for machining rod, IIS is also available in the form of 

forgings. 











Forgings: The alloy most extensively used in the manufacture 
of forgings is 25S (U. S. Patent 1,472,738). This alloy in its fully 
heat-treated temper (25S-T) has mechanical properties very near- 
ly the same as those of 17S-T. It is more easily worked at ele- 
vated temperatures, however, and for this reason, it is generally 
used for forged parts. For some forgings, 17S-T is specified be- 



21 



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\LCOA ALl MINIM and ITS ALLOYS * . 



cause of its greater resistance to severely corrosive conditions. 
Forgings of 14S-T (U. S. Patent 1,472,740) alloy have highest me- 
chanical properties of any of the alloys which are produced in |j 
this form, as may be seen by reference to Table 19. Jt has good 
resistance to corrosion and can be forged at least as readih as 
17S. The alloy A51S can be forged even more easily than 25S 
and is therefore used for large and intricate parts which cannot || 
be produced in the harder alloys. Because of its lower cost, il is 
also used for forgings in which higher mechanical properties are 

not required. 

For certain applications, notably in the rayon, dairy and j 

brewing industries, unusually severe corrosive conditions ma> 
determine the choice of 53S-T forgings. 

The case of machining of 11S-T makes it best suited for cer- 



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tain purposes. 

The alloy 70S (1. S. Patent 1,924,729) is likewise used where a 
lower cost product is desired. For forged parts, such as pistons, || 

in which the retention of strength at elevated temperature is ( 

sential, the alloys 32S (U. S. Patent 1,799,837) and 18S are used. || 
In addition to good mechanical properties at the working tem- 
peratures of internal combustion engines. 32S has the advantage is 
of a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than that of other 
wrought aluminum allo>-. || 

Extruded Sections: Tin 1 extrusion process makes possible I Ik (| 

production of shapes which ha\ e been designed to facilitate t h«- 
erection of the structure in which they are used, and in which (| 

the metal is disposed more efficiently with relation to 1 1 1« itresse 
which it must withstand than is possible in standard rolled stun- (| 
tural shapes. The use of such extruded sections has great In simpli- 
fied aircraft design and has contributed largely to the economic || 
success of lightweight railway car construction. The savings in 
erection cost resulting from the use of special extruded shu| || 

has gone far in offsetting the higher << si of aluminum alle 

compared with structural steel. These shapes also have made ii 
possible even greater saving in weight than could be accomplished 

by the substitution of standard rolled structural shapes of [[ 
aluminum alloy for similar sections in structural steel. 

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Forming: Commercially pure aluminum, 2S, is outstanding for 
the ease with which it can be drawn, spun, stamped or forged. 
Starting with the metal in its annealed temper, articles requiring 
several successive drawing and spinning operations may be made 
without the necessity of any intermediate annealing. Since the 



alloys are less ductile than the pure metal, they require more 
liberal radii for bends and are capable of withstanding less severe 
forming. However, there is a considerable range of fabricating 
qualities among the various alloys in their different tempers, 
from 3S-0, which is only slightly less ductile than 2S-0, to 51S-T, 
which is not used where appreciable amounts of forming are re- 
quired. 

The alloys 2S, 3S, 4S and 52S cover a wide range of mechanical 
properties in their various tempers. Since their harder tempers are 
obtained by cold working during the process of manufacture, the 
amount of forming which can be done on them is greater, the 
softer the temper. For many drawing operations, the half hard 
temper retains sufficient ductility for good working qualities even 
in 4S and 52S, and some less severe draws are successfully ac- 
complished with these alloys in the hard temper. 

Aluminum alloys are frequently fabricated on tools designed 
for use with other metals. There are, however, some differences 
in fabricating practices, a knowledge of which may be helpful in 
more difficult forming jobs. In drawing or stamping operations, 
successful results may depend upon the choice of the proper lu- 
bricant. The light lubricating oils, marketed under the designation 
"metal oil," are most commonly used in large scale operations. 
The best lubricant is tallow, mixed with a small amount of mineral 
oil, but because of its greater cost and the greater difficulty of 
applying it to the blank and removing it from the finished work, 
it is used only on more difficult operations for which metal oil 
does not prove successful. 

The surface Finish of the tool also exerts considerable influence 
on the results. Tool steel with polished surfaces may be required 
for more difficult draws of the harder alloys, while for many jobs, 
cast steel or even cast iron tools are satisfactory, provided the 
number of parts which are to be made is not too great. 

In forming aluminum alloys, it is necessary to recognize their 
characteristic properties. The chief requirement for successful 



23 



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\\A () V ALl MIM M and ITS \L\A)\ S 






working is that the tools shall permit a suitable radius for bend- 
ing and drawing operations. The radius which i- required varie 
both with the grade of the alloy and with the thickness of thi 
material. The radius of a bend will also depend to some extent on 
the type of bending equipment which is used. Frequently, a small 
change in the tools has been found sufficient to obviate the ne- 
cessity of choosing a softer temper or type of alio} . I n some < ases 
ibis change consisted only in the slight rounding of a sharp edge 
or merely a polishing operation to improve the surface so I 
prevent the metal from flowing into scratches or flaws in the 
tools, which action would cause the metal to tear. In certain 
difficult forming operations, it may be necessary to resort to 
several successive draws with intermediate annealing, starting 
of course, with annealed material. 

Table 5 is intended as a guide in the choice of a suitable ma- 
terial or of a proper forming radius, not as a tabulation of definil 
operating limits. The final choice of the allo> or of the working 
radius should be based on a trial under tin 1 conditions t<» be used 
in production. The relative ease of forming is also affected b> the 
nature of the forming process. While experience in handling these 
alloys makes possible some prediction as to the material which 
mav be used, ihe final answer must be obtained b> actual trial 
of different materials on the tools. 



Hot Forming: By raising the heat-treatable alloys to suitable 

temperatures, it is possible to form them around much smaller 

idii than are possible at ordinary temperatures. i>\ working al 

a temperature around 400°F., there is considerable improvement 

in their forming characteristics. Provided the metal is not laid 

at this temperature for too long a time, preferably not more than 
a half hour, there is no appreciable loss in mechanical } >p< 
ties. This method of forming is especially suitable for :>IS-'I and 

53S-T since their resistance (o corrosion is not impaired b> the 

heating, as i> the case with I TS-T and 21S-T S< pag< 2 . Even 

with these latter alios- the effect rna> not be rious, since hot 

forming will be used onl> on hea\ > sections. 

Heat-treatable alloy plate can be formed into anfzl and other | 
shapes by heating the metal and forming it in die-, lor some cia - 
es of material, the best working temperature i> in the fa l- 



21 



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\\A MINUM COMPANY o/AMEIUCA 



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treatment range. In these cases, the chilling of the metal in the 
steel dies may constitute a satisfactory quench (U. S. Patent 
1,751,500), such that the mechanical properties of the heat- 
treated temper will be developed in the finished part after a suit- 
able aging. In some cases, the metal must be formed at a tempera- 
ture lower than that required for heat treatment. The advantage 
of quenching in the dies to avoid warping may be obtained by 
reheating the formed section to the heat-treating temperature 
and replacing it in the dies instead of quenching in water. Natural 
aging or precipitation heat treatment, as may be appropriate for 
I he alloy, will then develop the full properties of the metal. It 
must be emphasized that die quenching can be relied upon to give 
satisfactory results only in case the die is of such a character that 
I here is intimate contact with the metal which is being formed. 
The dies must also be of sufficient size to have adequate heat ca- 
pacil y to absorb the heat from the alloy and bring it promptly to 
room Imiperature. 



Welding: The wrought aluminum alloys are joined by welding 
as a common commercial practice. Torch, arc, or resistance weld- 
ing are applied as the parts may require. The technique of weld- 
ing aluminum differs from that used on steel, but is readily mas- 
tered with a little practice. 

Because of I he oxide film which forms on an exposed surface 
it is necessary to use a flux in torch or arc welding aluminum. 
For arc welding, a flux-coated rod is used to advantage. When 
welding the common alloys by either of these processes, a welding 
rod of 2S or of the same composition as the alloy which is being 
welded is often used, although an aluminum alloy rod containing 
five per cent of silicon is more easily handled and gives better 
results in complicated welds. This latter rod is recommended for 
most applications in the welding of the heat-treatable alloys. 

Butt, lap and fillet joints are made by torch welding, using 
either the oxy-hydrogen or the oxy-acetylene flame, with com- 
parable facility to similar joints in steel. 

There are some limitations to the applications of arc welding. 
However, butt joints are readily made on material thicker than 
about ^6 inch. This process possesses the advantages of greater 
speed and of less distortion of the part as compared with torch 



25 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLCn S « « « 




AJ>ove — These 2300-gallon alumi- 
num milk transport tanks enable 
the operator to carry 200 gallons 
more. An application of aluminum 
in the Dairy Industry. 



Right— All-aluminum rotary dis- 
tributor for applying sewage liquid 
to circular trickling filter beds. The 
urosion resistance of aluminum 
interests the sanitary engineer. 





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Each of these thirtwiine beer tanks is tall enough to span thr< of 

modem brewery and big enough to house >our automobile. Unafl I b 

beer, aluminum guards its goodness. 

Alcoa Aluminum is non-contaminating, non-toxic, forever sterile. 
The facility of fabricating aluminum — handling, forming, welding, 
riveting, finishing — is demonstrated by the many large-scale ap- 
plications. The alloys of Alcoa Aluminum are strong, yet light. 



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welding; als< >, the effect on the structure and temper of the parenl 
metal extends a smaller distance from the joint. 

Some general considerations should betaken into account in de- 
signing parts containing welded joints. The strain-hardened allox s 
after welding are annealed for a short distance from the weld. 
Consequently, the design stresses for annealed alloy should be 
applied. The metal in the weld has a cast structure having about 
the same strength as the annealed metal, but less ductility. If the 
weld head is left as welded, the joint is usually stronger than the 
adjacent metal. Grinding of the welds will reduce the strength of 
the joint somewhat; but hammering them will generally accom- 
plish the same purpose as grinding, without the sacrifice in 
strength. 

Welding the heat-treated alloys tends to destroy the effects of 
prior heat treatment. The annealing temperature range is exceed- 
ed in the metal adjacent to the weld and the rate of cooling in the 
air is fairly rapid, consequently, its strength is usually inter- 
mediate between that of the fully-annealed alloy and that which 
would result from the solution heat treatment. Except in the 
case of 53S, the change in the temper of the metal resulting from 
the heating also has an adverse effect upon its resistance to cor- 
rosion. The loss in these properties can be partially recoA ered b> 
reheat treatment or by performing the welding operations before 
heat treatment where this plan is feasible. Where the joint is de- 
pended upon for maximum efficiency, torch welding, and, in 
many cases arc welding, cannot be considered equal to a well- 
designed mechanical type of joint. 



Resistance Welding: Resistance welding, embracing spot, seam, 
and butt welding, may be employed in the fabrication of alumi- 
num in a manner similar to that used for other materials. Due to 
the entirely different physical characteristics of aluminum, the 
technique and equipment employed will differ considerably from 
that used for steel. In some cases, however, equipment used for 
steel may be modified or added to in order to provide excellent 
results when used with aluminum or its alloys. 

In addition to the required changes in equipment, several 
limes the electrical capacity is required for aluminum as com- 
pared with a similar resistance weld application in steel. 



27 



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ALCOA ALl MIM \1 and ITS ALLOl S « || 

Liquid or gas-tight tanks may be conveniently fabricated by || 

means of seam welding, the weld in effect consisting of a succes- 
sion of spot welds so closely spaced as to overlap and provide a || 
continuous seam. The operation is entirely automatic and com- 
mercially practicable ^ || 

Spot welding may in many cases be used to replace rivets vs i t h 
decreased cost and an improved mechanical result. | 

RESISTANCE TO CORROSION II 

The resistance of a material to corrosion isarelative term and de- || 

pends upon a comparison w ilh other metals or \\ ilh other alio} > oi 

the same metal. None of the commercial metals is immune to all [( 

conditions to which structural materials are exposed. There is al- 

\va\s I lie possibility of overstressing I he dangers of corrosion with [| 

the resull thai the prospective user is deterred from employing 
the metal where (here is no occasion for concern. On the other || 
hand, if the possibility of trouble is ignored, metal failures max 
result, which could ha\c been avoided by simple protective 

measures. 

Commercial aluminum contains, as a maximum, one per cent 

of impurities. This metal, designated 2S when in the wrought 

condition, is widely used because of its high resistance to ordinary 
conditions of exposure. Selected grades of higher purit} are even 
more resistanl to mosl forms of attack. The addition of other 

elements to produce alloys from commercial aluminum do( not 

improve the resistance of the metal and in mosl cases caus< some 
loss in this property. Magnesium, manganese, and chromium 

ha\e no adverse effect and silicon lias but Little. 

\ll of the commercial aluminum alloys are properl) classed us 

materials resistant to corrosion, although some are more n 
sistant than others and. hence, are chosen for those applications 

in which this property is of major importance. 

The alloys 3S and IS behave practically the sam as 2S und r 
similar conditions of exposure. The alloy 52S appears to be more 
resistant to attack than 2S, both from the standpoint of the re- 
tention of its mechanical properties and of its surface appearan 

Considerable study has been made on the effect of the temper 
of these alloys on their resistance to attack. In eneral, it n > 



28 



. * » ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « 



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be stated that any differences in this property as a result of strain- 
hardening are less than the small differences which are normally 
to be expected from one lot to another of commercial materials. 

These alloys are generally used without any protection other 
than the usual precaution to avoid electrolytic action from contact 
with a dissimilar metal. Under severe conditions of exposure, such 
as may prevail on shipboard or where the metal is in contact 
with wood or other absorbent material continually in the presence 
of moisture, a protective coat of paint is desirable as an added 
precaution. 

Among the heat-treatable alloys, 53S is the most resistant to 
corrosion, it being fully equal to 2S in this respect. The other al- 
loys in the group, while resistant to attack, are commonly pro- 
tected when used in exposed locations. 

In general the heat-treatable alloys are in their most resistant 
state when they have been subjected to solution heat treatment 
followed by aging at ordinary temperatures. In the case of 53S 
alloy, heating after quenching to develop the maximum proper- 
ties of the alloy (precipitation heat treatment) has so slight an 
effect, that for all practical purposes the alloy may be considered 
equally resistant in all its tempers (53S-0, 53S-W and 53S-T). 

Alloy 51S-W is somewhat more resistant than 51S-T, precipita- 
tion heat treatment being necessary to produce the latter temper. 
There is little difference in the resistance of 17S-T and 24S-T; 
51S-T compares favorably with these materials. Heating 17S-T, 
A17S-T and 24S-T after they have been quenched impairs their 
resistance to attack. Baked enamel finishes have been proposed 
for the protection of these alloys, but other protective treatments 
have been developed which do not require heating and, hence, do 
not have the disadvantage of decreasing the inherent resistance 
of the metal. 

Alloys 51S-T and 53S-T may be heated at temperatures up to 
400°F. for as long as one-half hour without appreciable loss in 
either mechanical properties or resistance to corrosion. This is an 
advantage when it is necessary to form them more severely than 
can be done at ordinary temperatures, or when it is necessary to 
use hot-driven rivets in joining them. 

While experience shows that aluminum alloys are corrosion- 
resistant materials and, in many of their applications, they are 



29 



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Above — Fabrication tech- 
nique was an important 
factor in this installation of 

new escalators. Easy to 
form, Alcoa Aluminum 
welds beautifully, assembles 
economical] y . N on - ru st ing 
in the moisture-laden at- 
mosphere, these escalator 
facings are treated l>y th< 
Alumilite Process. Th* 
will not smudge, stain nor 

tarnish. 



Right — Aluminum door- 
representative of intricate 
and elaborate design are 
readily cast in aluminum. 
Other qualities that r<-< orn- 
mend aluminum for archi- 
tectural ornamentation are 
lightweight, strength, re- 
sistance to corrosion, and 
easy workability. 




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used without any protective coating, under severe corrosive 
conditions, protection may be desirable. 

The efficacy of protective paints on aluminum alloys depends 
mainly upon the composition of the paint, upon the preparation 
of the aluminum surface before painting, and upon the inherent 
resistance of the alloy. For service under ordinary atmospheric 
conditions, it is usually sufficient to clean the dirt and grease 
from the surface with a chemical cleanser which cleans with 
only superficial attack of the aluminum surface. Using a solvent 
is less desirable but may give satisfactory results. For service 
conditions where the part is to be kept wet or subjected to high 
humidity for extended periods, as, for example, in seaplanes, 
anodic coating of the aluminum surface is advantageous in pro- 
moting the adhesion of the paint, and in increasing the protec- 
tion of the aluminum alloy. 

Aluminum paint, made by mixing aluminum bronze powder or 
paste with a suitable synthetic resin varnish vehicle, affords ex- 
cellent protection. The use of a priming coat containing zinc 
chromate may be advantageous for service under conditions of 
severe exposure. Where the metal is continually subjected to 
moist ure, as on the inside of pontoons or seaplane floats, bitumi- 
nous paints have given good service. The bituminous paint may 
be covered to advantage by a coat of aluminum paint. 



Ale lad Products: "Alclad" is the registered trade-mark used by 
Aluminum Company of America to identify alloy products of ex- 
ceptional resistance to corrosion in which this property is impart- 
ed by means of a surface layer of aluminum of high purity or a 
special aluminum alloy, alloyed and integral with the core. The 
thickness of the surface metal is so chosen as to retain, in the re- 
sultant product, the maximum physical properties consistent with 
adequate protection of the alloy core. In the commonly-used 
thicknesses of Alclad 17S-T and Alclad 24S-T sheet, the tensile 
and yield strengths are approximately ten per cent lower than 
the values for the uncoated alloys. 

It is noteworthy that the coating not only protects the alloy 
which it covers, but by electrolytic action, prevents attack on the 
sheared edges of the sheet or other sections of the base alloy 
which may be exposed by scratches or abrasions. Ordinary ITS 



31 



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» » » ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS . « « j 

alloy rivets, used to join Alclad sheet, are likewise afforded con- | 
siderable protection because of this electrolytic effect. Such pro- 
tection is accomplished at the expense of some solution of the | 
metal surface layers. Under continued exposure to sea water, 
corrosion products may accumulate on the surface of the sheet as j 
a result of this action. While the appearance of the metal may be 
impaired, mechanical test specimens taken from the sheet show | 
that the base metal has not suffered loss of mechanical properties. 
With proper cleaning the appearance of the surface can be re- | 
stored without removing the surface metal upon which the pro- 
tection depends. \ 

Test specimens of Alclad sheet, subjected to the standard salt 
spray test for a period of five years, have shown no loss in me- | 
chanical properties. Except for some solution of the pure metal 
layer near the machined edges and in a few isolated spots, the | 
sheet appeared bright. A riveted tensile test specimen in which 
ordinary 17S-T rivets were used to join the Alclad sheets, had j 
the same strength after three years' exposure to three and one- 
half per cent sea salt spray, as the control specimen which had | 
been carefully stored. 

In certain cases where resistance to surface abrasion must be | 
considered, as in the case of wire, the surface layer ma\ be an 
alloy which is harder than the pure aluminum, but which ha* | 
excellent resistance to corrosion; it is also anodic to the underlying 
strong alloy, and therefore renders electrolytic protection in the | 
same manner as the pure aluminum surface. 

Sheet and plate are available in Alclad ITS and Mclad 24 in | 
all the tempers in which the base alloy is supplied. Alclad ITS 
wire is manufactured with the corrosion-resistant, hard, all< | 

surface. Other Alclad products are in process of development. 

Alclad sheet is extensively used in the aircraft industr The | 
metal-clad dirigible airship, ZMC-2, made for the United States 
Navy, has Alclad 1TS-T sheet for the outer shell. Although only | 
0.0095 of an inch in thickness, and unprotected, test samples from 
this shell showed no deterioration after five years of sei \ ice. Seme | 
of the leading manufacturers use Alclad sheet in various parts of 
their planes. For most types of service, it is not necessary to paint | 
Alclad sheet; but for seaplane floats and other applications where 
corrosion conditions are unusually severe, a protective coating 



32 



ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 




of paint may be found necessary. The surface of Alclad sheet may 
be anodically treated, prior to painting, in order to obtain the 
maximum adherence of the paint. 

The use of Alclad sheet to replace the plain sheet of the same 
alloy sometimes requires the use of slightly heavier gauges to 
compensate for its lower tensile properties. This increased metal 
thickness does not necessarily represent a corresponding increase 
in weight of the finished structure, since the weight of the pro- 
tecting paint film, which is usually applied to the uncoated sheet, 
may be comparable with the added metal weight, particularly 
in the case of the thinner gauges commonly used in aircraft. The 
substitution of Alclad 24S-T for uncoated 17S-T will actually 
permit a saving in weight without any consideration of the weight 
of I he protective paint film used with the latter material. 

It should again be repeated that the corrosion problem is large- 
ly dependent upon the condition of exposure. All of these alloys 
are used in a considerable variety of applications because of their 
satisfactory performance as regards retention of their surface 
appearance and mechanical properties. 

The section thickness also has considerable bearing on the 
suitability of the different alloys for a gi\en application. In air- 
craft construction efficient design requires the extensive use of 
thin highly stressed sections with a minimum factor of safely. 
For such parts only the more resistant alloys and the best pro- 
lec live measures are employed. 

For applications requiring the use of thicker sections, super- 
ficial sin lace attack which may occur under some conditions is of 
minor consequence. For such uses the relative resistance to cor- 
rosion becomes a less important factor in the choice among the 
aluminum alloys. 



ANNE\IJN<; PRACTICE 



The strain-hardening which results from cold working aluminum 
alloys may be removed by annealing, i.e., by heating to permit 
recrystallization to take place. The rate at which recrystalliza- 
tion occurs is greater, the higher the temperature and the more 
severely the metal has been worked before it is annealed. Com- 



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Over 400,000 miles of aluminum cable, steel reinforced, has been usp<1 for 
transmiiiing electrical energy in the United States alone. Its hij^h strength- 

weighl ratio p'wes an extra factor of mechanical safety. 




Alcoa Aluminum bus bars provide 
S life, arc coo! in operation and 

eas\ to work. 




Channel conductor, for hea\\ cur- 
rents, will allow greater distant 
between the ipports. 



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1 ] plete softening is practically instantaneous for 2S and 52S at 

temperatures in excess of about 650°F., and for 3S and 4S at 
| temperatures of 750°F. or higher. Heating for longer times at 

somewhat lower temperatures will accomplish similar results. 
j Provided the metal has reached the instantaneous annealing 

temperature, the exact temperature is not critical, although it is 
i desirable that the recommended values shall not be too greatly 

exceeded. The rate of cooling is also not important, although too 
I rapid cooling may impair the flatness of the material. 

In the case of the heat-treatable alloys, greater care is required 

] in the choice of annealing conditions. The metal must be raised 

to a temperature which will permit recrystallization in order that 

) the strain-hardening shall be removed. On the other hand, the 

temperature must be maintained as low as possible in order to 

] avoid heat-treatment effects which would prevent complete soft- 

ening of the alloy, or else the cooling rate must be so slow as to 

\ counteract the effect of such heating (See Solution Heat Treat- 

ment, page 36). 

| Heating these alloys to 650°F. is sufficient to remove the strain- 

hardening which results from cold working. This temperature 

) should not be exceeded by more than ten degrees, nor should 

the metal temperature in any part of the load be less than 630°F. 

) The rate of cooling from the annealing temperature is not im- 

portant if the maximum temperature limit has been observed, 

| but slow cooling to a temperature of about 450°F. is a desirable 

precaution in case any part of the load may have been heated 

| above this temperature. 

This annealing practice, in addition to removing the hardening 

| effects of cold working, also removes most of the effects of heat 

treatment when applied to metal in the heat-treated temper. For 

( many purposes, this practice may be used to anneal the alloys in 

the heat-treated temper, provided the maximum degree of soft- 

3 ness is not required for the forming which is to be done. 

For more severe forming, which requires that the metal be in 
| its fully-annealed condition, the following process must be used 

for metal in the heat-treated temper. The alloy is heated at a 
| temperature of 750°F. to 800°F. for about two hours and is then 

allowed to cool slowly in the furnace to a temperature of 500°F. 
| The cooling rate should not exceed 50°F. per hour. 



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SOLUTION HEAT-TREATMENT PRACTICE § 

It should be stated at the outset that accurate temperature con- 

trol is necessary if proper results are to be obtained with strong ■ 

aluminum alloys. The temperature limits for the solution heat 

treatment are rather close, and strict adherence to these limits 1 

is essential. Heating is, perhaps, most easily accomplished in a 

bath of fused sodium nitrate, heated with gas or oil so as toper- I 

mit close regulation of the temperature. Such a bath should be 

well stirred to avoid inequalities in temperature. This can be 1 

readily accomplished by alternately raising and lowering the 

load while it is being heated, making sure, however, that the I 

metal is not raised above the surface of the bath. 

A furnace for heating in air can be used, provided it is so con- I 

structed as to give uniform temperatures throughout, and to per- 
mit proper control. These results are more easily accomplished I 
if provision is made for circulating the air. Both types of heating 
are in commercial use. The temperature range for the heat I 
treatment of 17S and AITS is from 930°F. to 950°F. For 51 S and 
53S, the temperature should be 9T0°F., making certain thai the I 
temperature is at least 960°F. and not over 980°F. For 2 IS, the 
temperature range is 910°F. to 930°F. I 

The time of heating depends upon the size of the load, the 
nature of the material, and the type of heating equipment. In a I 

nitrate bath, a period of 25 minutes is usually sufficient; some- 
what shorter times have given satisfactory results. In the fur- I 
naces in which air is the heating medium, the heating may re- 
quire several hours. It is essential that all of the metal in all parts I 
of the furnace load be raised to the specified temperature. Healing 
periods longer than the minimum which will accomplish the re- I 
suits are not detrimental within the limits that may be en- 
countered in commercial fabricating practice. 

Alclad alloy products should be heated as rapidly as possible 
and held for the minimum time which will insure that all of the [ 

load has been brought up to the heat-treating temperature. If 
long heating periods are used, the alloying constituents of the base 
metal will diffuse completely through the surface layer and the 
corrosion resistance of the product will be impaired. The thinner 
the material, the more essential it is that this precaution be ob- 
served. 



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ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA 



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The metal is removed from the heating bath or furnace and 
quenched in water. The time interval between the removal of the 
metal and its quenching should be as short as possible, not more 
than a few seconds, if best results are to be obtained. 

The quenching medium should be cold water. If hot water is 
used, the resistance of the alloy to corrosion is decidedly inferior. 
The effect of diffusion in Alclad products which have been heated 
too long is more harmful if they are not quenched in cold water. 
The volume of quenching water should be great enough that its 
temperature is not raised above 150°F. to 160°F. by the heat of 
the load. When a nitrate heating bath has been used, it is neces- 
sary that any adhering nitrate be completely washed from the 
metal in order to avoid corrosion because of the tendency of the 
salt to take up moisture; it may be desirable to follow the cold- 
water quench with a thorough washing in warm water because of 
the greater solubility and higher rate of solution of the salt at 
higher temperatures. The water should be warm, not hot, especial- 
ly if the alloy is to be formed before it has aged. 

The aging of 17S and 24S starts quite rapidly immediately 
after quenching and proceeds at a gradually diminishing rate 
until in about four days, at room temperature, it is practically 
complete. Severe forming of these alloys should be completed 
within one or two hours after quenching unless the rate of aging 
is retarded by storing them at low temperatures. If stored at the 
temperature of melting ice, immediately after quenching, good 
forming qualities may be retained for upwards of twenty-four 
hours, and at lower temperatures for even longer periods. On 
warming to room temperature, aging proceeds at the normal rate. 



PRECIPITATION HEAT-TREATMENT PRACTICE 



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alloys must be a^red at an elevated temperature after they have 
been quenched. This operation, known as the precipitation 
heat treatment, may be readily accomplished in an oven heated 
by means of steam coils and provided with a fan for air circula- 
tion. The temperature can be varied by changing the pressure in 
the steam coils. An electric furnace of proper design will also give 
satisfactory results. 



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The main com OUI ^e of B 

new railroad station is 
striking example ol i he use 
of aluminum in modern in 
terior decorai j- • Dooi 
w indows, lighting (ixtun 

grilles, clocks, and trim 6U 

typical appoint menta in 

aluminum. 



J his iju u sua I memoria ) 

made of alumilitcd alum 

num. is 35 feel hi^h feet 

Long, and m fee! wid i he 
wing spread of t largest 
j^ull is 6% feel and that of 
the smallest is i feet. Du- 
rable, Strong aluminum i- 

being i -d more and mor 

in the field of statuarx . 



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For SIS and 53S, the preferred temperature limits are 310°F. 
to 320°F., and the aging time is eighteen hours. Some experi- 
mentation may be required to determine the best aging time 
for a given class of material. It should be remembered that 
aging for too long a time or at too high a temperature will lower 
the elongation and eventually the tensile strength as well. If 
the temperature is too low, much longer aging periods are required 
to bring about the proper improvement of the alloys. 



THEORY OF HEAT TREATMENT 

In the aluminum alloys which respond to heat treatment, the 
alloying constituents which give the increased strength and hard- 
ness are substances which are more soluble in solid aluminum at 
high temperatures than at low temperatures. 

The first step in heat treatment, frequently called the "solu- 
tion heat treatment," consists in heating the alloy to a high 
temperature, below the melting point, to put as much as possible 
of the alloying constituent into solid solution, then quenching to 
retain this condition. When in solid solution, the alloying con- 
stituent is so finely dispersed that it is not visible with the micro- 
scope, even at high magnification. In effect, the alloying con- 
stituent has been dissolved in the aluminum and dispersed as 
completely as when sugar is dissolved in water. 

After quenching, the alloy undergoes an aging process which, 
if carried out at elevated temperatures, is called a "precipitation 
heat treatment," because during this stage some of the alloying 
constituent which is held in solid solution precipitates from the 
solid solution in the form of extremely fine particles. This precip- 
itation may occur spontaneously at room temperature, as is the 
case in the so-called "natural aging" of the alloys ITS and 24S, 
or it may require a "precipitation heat treatment" or "artificial 
aging" at about 300°F., as in the case of 51S or 53S. 

The particles of precipitated constituent may be so fine as to 
be invisible even under the most powerful microscopes, but their 
presence and effects are quite real, even though they cannot be 
seen. By continued heating they may, however, be caused to 
grow to sufficient size so that they become visible under micro- 
scopic examination. The size and distribution of the precipitated 



39 



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> » » ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « « « | 

constituent arehighlyimportant in determining the mechanical and | 

physical properties of the heat-treated alloy. There is an optimum 
condition which gives the best combination of properties, and a | 

detailed knowledge of the heat-treatment process is necessary lo 
produce the best results with each alloy. | 

The increase in hardness of the alloy as a result of heat treat- 
ment is pictured as being due to the "keying" ad ion of the 
precipitated particles of the alloying constituent, which prevent* 
slip along the crystal planes of the metal. To use a simple analogy, 
the action might be compared \\ i l h the effect of ash which pre- 
vent the feel of pedestrians from slipping on icy pavements. 

These change with the corresponding increase in tensile proper- 
ties, tend to take place at ordinary room tempi lures. In the 
rase of ITS and 2 IS the age hardening is practically complete in 

about four days. 

The alloys 51S and 53S likewise show some increa in strength 
and hardness on standing at room temperatures Miter quenching, 

but after several days the rate of change becomes very slow if, 

however, tin temperature is raised, the rate of precipitation and 

particle growth is materially increased, with the result thai much 
higher lei le and yield strengths and hardm an be developed 
m these alloys in a few hours than would be possih I room 

temperature over an indefinite period. Some of lie- all< s 
how practically do change in properties on aging at room tem- 
peratures after quenching. At higher temperatures precipitation 
occurs with the con quent improvement in tensile pro] lie^ 
This ond heating operation is called tin 'pi ipitation beat 
treatment'*. When the change occurs at ordinary tempi itui , 

it is known as "aging 



40 




CASTING ALLOYS 

Aluminum casting alloys may, like the wrought alloys, be 
classed in two groups: one, in which the improvement in proper- 
lies is accomplished by alloying alone; and two, the alloys in 
which beat-treatment processes are used to enhance further the 
me< hanical properties. The casting alloys are given a number to 
designate the alloy composition; the heat-treatable alloy com- 
, it inn numbers are followed by the letter 4 T" and a number to 
indicate the heat-treatment practice. Minor changes in the 
composition are indicated by a letter preceding the original alloy 
number. As in the case of the wrought alloys, the selection will 
depend upon the requirements of the particular application. 

C tings are almost invariably produced in the alloys of alu- 
minum except in a few cases where the electrical or other proper- 
ties of the pure metal are required. By the addition of various 
alloying elements or "hardeners" to aluminum, not only its tensile 
strength, but casting properties as well, are improved. By alloying 
alone, strengths almost double that of commercially pure alumi- 
num are obtained and the increase in strength is gained at a sacri- 
fice of most of the ductility of the parent metal. The elements com- 
monly used as hardeners are copper, silicon, magnesium, zinc, 
manganese, nickel and iron. The properties of the alloys vary de- 
pending upon the element or elements which are added and upon 
the percentages used. No two of the alloys in commercial use have 
identical properties, even though several of them may have sub- 
stantially identical tensile strengths. A brief discussion of the 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



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Left — Lightweight com- 
bined with thermal effi- 
ciency makes aluminum 
the universal choice for 

pistons. 



Right — Alcoa Aluminum cylinder 
heads are cast in a metal mold to 
assure superior accuracy and sound- 
ness. 




Continuous improvements 
in mechanical properties 
of aluminum alloys, and 
advances in foundry and 
forging practice are con- 
tributing to engine per- 
formance and life. 



Left — Forged aircraft crankr ase. 



Below — Sand cast aircraft cyli ler 

head. 



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characteristic properties of the different alloys may be of value 
mi addition to the tabulation of the mechanical properties which 

appear in Table 1 1. 

Aluminum alloy castings are poured not only in sand molds, 
but in permanent metal molds; they are also die cast under pres- 
sure in die casting machines. The type of casting process which is 
ii I will depend upon several factors. For large or for intricate 
cored < lings, the use of sand molds is necessary. Because a 
metal mold or steel die is required, the use of die and permanent 
mold castings can be considered only where a sufficiently large 
number of castings of I he same pattern will be used to justify the 
cosl of I lie mold or die to I lie purchaser. The die-casting process is 
particularly adapted to the quantity production of relatively 
small • astings in which close dimensional tolerances are required 
and the cost of finishing must be held to a minimum. The di- 
mensional tolerances of permanent mold castin 3 are intermediate 
between those of sand castings and those of die castings, and the 
surface finish is comparable with that of die castings. 

The mechanical properties of test bars cast in metal molds are, 
in general, higher than those from the same alloy cast in sand. 
This siime superiority in strength will be realized in commercial 
cast ings, except in so far as problems of mold design may partial I > 
offset the advantages of the better metal structure. 



Saml (astings: The aluminum castings industry has developed 
from the use of an alloy called No. 12, containing about eight 
per cent of copper and such impurities as are present in com- 
mercial aluminum ingot. Sand molds were first used, permanent 
metal molds being a more recent introduction. The alloys 112 and 
212 have been developed from the original 12 alloy. The greater 
proportion of the castings produced in this country is stilt made 
from these alloys, although the preponderance is not nearly as 
great as it was a few years ago. 

From the standpoint of the finished castings, there is little to 
choose among alloys 12, 112, and 212. The mechanical proper- 
ties are substantially the same. All three contain approximately 
eight per cent of copper; 212 differs from 12 in that small addi- 
tions of silicon and iron are made to control the ratio of these 
elements and thereby improve the casting qualities of the alloy. 



43 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS . . « 



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Alloy 112 contains small additions of iron and zinc. For most uses, « 
these small differences in composition are not significant. Alloy 
112 has somewhat superior machining qualities; however, except .. 
on large production jobs, this difference is probably not suf- 



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ficient to determine the choice. For most applications, th< al- 
loys may be used interchangeably and they are commonly speci- 
fied for general purpose castings. Where pressure tight in re- - 
quired, 109 alloy is sometimes used, although it is not suitable 
where il may be required to withstand shock. 

Alloy A-334 (I ". S. Patent 1.572,489) has slightly better me- 
chanical properties than these of 12, 112, and 212 alloys, I well 

as somewhat superior casting proper! i . It can be used for the 

production of castings of intricate design, in which pressure tight- 
ness is required. It may be subjected to an artificial aging treat- 
ment to increase it^ hardness and to improve its machining quali- 
ties (U. S. latent 1,394,534). 

Alloys containing silicon as the hardener base made I steady 

increase in commercial application since their introduction a tern 
years ago. and today, these alloys represent a considerable pei 

centag" of the foundry production both in this count tnd 
abroad. They have excellent casting qualiti- and can h< used 

in the production of large thin n castings, which an intricate 

in design, >r of casting- which have adjoining hea\ y and light 
sections; they are al employed ID the production of S 

which must withstand fluid pi< lift without leaking. In addi- . 

tion, the aluminum silicon alloys have excellent r< t 

rosion. O tin compositions are susceptible to! it treatment or ■ 
to sp 1 foundry practio i (modification) to improi their m< 

charm a] proper! i< i 

Alio) 13, containing five per cent of silicon, is most widely urn 

in this country. Its tensile and yield Strength* are I lewhat i 

lower than those of the aluminum copper all* s (12, 112 >, 

but it is appreciably more ductile and resistant to sb k I c 

of it- xcellent casting qualities and n istanofl U itmospheri 

tack, it is used practically to the e lusion of Other all< - in the t 

production of a hitectural and ornamental i lings. Mai me 

cast i i are also made of it b< us- fit atisf tory] an t 

in salt-laden atmospheres. Alloy Q taining ten | -fit sili- 

con, has higher strength and hardness, but it is le^ lu( tile. It is r 



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similar in of her respects lo fc3 alloy, but not always quite so easily 
i I in leak-proof 'idlings. Alloy 45 has been used in insl rumen i 
If am ind fittings because of its higher strength. 

\lli>> IT contains twelve and one-half per cent silicon. When 

isl without the use of special casting practices (such as th<»^ 

described in I . S. Patents L,387,900, 1,410,461, I.. .96,020, 1,572,- 

IV 1,570,893 1,848,797, 1,848,798), the alloy is quite brittle and 

has a coai I al I i nc frad nrc. I >y the use of the "modification" 

process, -and castings can be produced having distinctly higher 

strengths I ban those of I > and 15 a!lo\s, and higher elongation 

,i- well. Tin- li hue of the "modified" or I he chill cast allo\ i- 
fine i lined, and i commonly designated as "silky." 

\lloys ontaining magnesium in suitable proportions as the 
hardenei are e\ en more resistant to corrosion than the aluminum- 

ilicon alio Vllo> - 1 1, eon I aining I hree and three-quarters per 
cenl of m nesium, is used where service conditions requin the 
maximum resistance to corrosive attack. It is more difficult i<» 
cast into intricate, leak-proof castings than the aluminum-silicon 
alio} but has higher mechanical properties than 13 alloy and 

i distinctly more resistant I o corrosion. It is employed in the 
production of castings for use in sewage disposal plants, chemical 
plants, ami dairy equipment : it is also used in cast cooking uten- 

ils and for the production of aircraft and marine castings. Alloy 

2 H>, containing approximately six per ceo I magnesium, has higher 
tensile and yield strengths but somewhat lower elongation. Be- 
cause of the higher magnesium content, special foundry technique 
is requi I for the production of satisfactory castings. Its resist- 
tnce to corrosion is at least equal to that of 214 alloy. 

For certain special applications, other compositions may be 
recommended. Alloy 108 (U. S. Patent 1,572,489) contains both 
silicon and copper and combines some of the desirable character- 
istics of these two classes of alloys. Zinc is sometimes used as a 
hardener for aluminum; in fact the alloy most commonly used in 
Europe contains zinc and copper as the alloying elements. For 
certain classes of castings, alloy 645 (U. S. Patent 1,352.271) is 
sometimes \i^^\ ; it is similar to the European type alloy, but con- 
tains io»n as an essential constituent. Its mechanical properties 

are higher than those of the aluminum-copper or the aluminum- 
silicon alloys, but it is not advised for uses in which severe cor- 



45 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « . « 



rosive conditions may be encountered. It also should not be used 
where it will be subjected to elevated temperatures in service 
because it has lower strength under these conditions than do 
most of the other aluminum alloys. 



Permanent Mold Castings: Some of the alloys used in making 



The great majority of pistons for internal combustion engine 
have been made from 122 alloy. More recently 132 alloy (U. £ 
Patent 1,799,837) has been developed to provide a material with 
a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than that of other com- 
mercial alloys of aluminum. The use of this latter alloy permits a 
closer fit of the piston in the cylinder. Pistons for certain of the 
aircraft engines are made from 142 alloy. All of these alloys are 
susceptible to heat treatment for improvement of their mechan- 
ical properties (U. S. Patents 1,394,534, 1,572,487, 1,572.188, 
1,508,556, 1,713,093, 1,822,877, 1,945,737, etc.). 

Alloys containing approximately eight per cent copper as th 
principal alloying constituent, also find application in permanent 
mold castings. Although alloy 112 is used to some extent, varia- 
tions of this alloy, known as B113 and C113, have been developed 
particularly for this use. Controlled additions of silicon and zinc 
in these latter alloys provide the somewhat better casting char- 
acteristics desired for permanent mold use. 

Alloy A108, containing both copper and silicon, and combining 
some of the desirable characteristics of both classes of alloys, 
possesses good casting properties for the more intricate perma- 
nent mold castings. 

Alloys 138 and 144 provide excellent hardness in the cast condi- 
tion, which hardness is retained well at elevated temperatures. 



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sand castings are also poured into permanent molds, while others . 

have been developed primarily for this purpose. The composition 
and physical properties of some of the more commonly-used per- . 

manent mold alloys are listed in Table 12. Because of the finer 
grain structure resulting from the rapid solidification of the metal, « 

permanent mold castings have greater susceptibility to heat 



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treatment, and in the case of the aluminum-silicon alloys, the 
structure and mechanical properties are similar to those obtained 
by the modification processes in sand castings (U. S. Patent . 

1,572,459). 



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Alloy 138, particularly, has found applications for parts, such as 
fint-iron sole plates, where maximum hardness at operating tem- 
peratures is desired. 

Alloy A214 is a modification of the sand casting alloy 214, 
developed because of its superior qualities for casting in perma- 
nent molds. Its tarnish resistance is substantially the same as that 
of the sand casting alloy from which it was developed. 

The selection of an alloy for a permanent mold casting de- 
pends both upon the nature of the casting and upon the service 
it is to perform. This question can best be decided by consulta- 
tion with a representative of the Company, who is familiar with 
the production and the properties of permanent mold castings. 
Where this process is applicable, it offers not only the mechanical 
advantages which have been mentioned, but closer dimensional 
tolerances. Finishing costs may be materially lower than those 
for sand castings as a result of the saving in machining. 



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Heat-Treated Castings: The production of heat-treated cast- 
ings has increased over the past several years in response to the 
increasing demand for lightweight castings having mechanical 
properties superior to those of the common unheat-treated casting 
alloys. 

The alloy which has come into most general use is No. 195, con- 
taining four per cent copper. Solution heat treatment (T4) (U. S. 
Patent 1,572,487) causes a marked increase in the tensile and 
yield strengths and also higher elongations as compared with the 
alloy as cast. If the solution heat treatment is followed by a 
precipitation heat treatment (U. S. Patent 1,394,534), the tensile 
and yield strengths are increased and the elongation is decreased. 
The extent to which these changes occur vary with the time and 
temperature which are employed. Alloy 195-T6 has a higher 
tensile and yield strength, and an elongation about half that of 
195-T4. If, however, this latter alloy is allowed to age at room 
temperature for several months, properties nearly the same as 
those of 195-T6 are developed. Still higher tensile and yield 
strengths are obtained in alloy 195-T62, but the increase in these 
properties is obtained at the sacrifice of most of the elongation of 
the alloy. 

For use in permanent molds the heat-treated four per cent cop- 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 



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AJbove 

tings, machined from forged blanks, 
simplify the use of Alcoa Alumi- 
num tubing for fuel and oil lines. 



quan t i t y production, 
Alcoa Aluminum die castings offer 
t liin sections, smooth surfaces, close 
d i m en sional a ccuracy . 



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Forged aluminum locomotive connecting rods and cast heat-treated cross-head 
assemblies reduce inertia and centrifugal forces and are durable in service. 



48 



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per alloy composition is modified by the addition of three per cent 
of silicon (U.S. Patents 1,508,556,1,572,489). The symbol for des- 
ignating this composition becomes B195, and since it is regularly 
supplied in the solution heat-treated condition, castings are speci- 
fied as B195-T4. A second modification known as D195 alloy, 
also supplied in the T4 condition, provides somewhat better 
mechanical properties than B195-T4, but, because of its less satis- 
factory casting characteristics, is limited to castings of relatively 
simple design. 

For very complicated castings which, if produced in the un- 
heat- treated alloys, would require the use of one of the aluminum- 
silicon alloys for successful or economical manufacture, a new high 
strength alloy has been developed. This alloy, 356 (U. S. Patents 
1,472,739, 1,508,556, etc.) contains silicon and magnesium as 
hardening agents and, like 195, responds to heat-treatment proc- 
esses. It is recommended for the production of castings in which 
superior mechanical properties are desired, but which would be 
difficult or uneconomical to manufacture in 195 alloy because of 
foundry limitations. 

Like 195 alloy, 356 alloy is produced in several heat treatments, 
the most common of which are 356-T4, and 356-T6, the properties 
varying in the same manner as in the case of the former alloy. 
The mechanical properties are slightly lower than those of 195 
as determined from standard test bars. A complicated casting 
made in this alloy may, however, be stronger than if it were 
made in 195, because of the avoidance of casting defects which 
could not be avoided in producing it from the latter alloy. For 
ordinary work, however, 195 alloy is usually recommended be- 
cause of its long record of satisfactory performance and its greater 
ruggedness in withstanding shock or suddenly-applied load. 

Alloy 355 (U. S. Patents 1,508,556, 1,848,816, etc.) containing 
slightly more copper and less silicon, also has excellent casting 
qualities, and, in addition, retains its strength well at tempera- 
tures up to 400°F. Like the other alloys in this group, it is sus- 
ceptible to a variety of heat treatments to develop different 
properties. It is used in the manufacture of liquid-cooled cylinder 
heads for motors and for other complicated castings where its 
leak-proof properties and heat-resisting qualities are of im- 
portance. In case higher temperatures are to be withstood, the 



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modification of the alloy A355 (U. S. Patents 1,595,058, 1,848,- | 
816, etc.) is recommended. 

Both 355 and 356 alloys are susceptible to improvement in | 
tensile strength and hardness, at some sacrifice in ductility, 
through an aging treatment alone. These treatments are of par- | 

ticular advantage for large and intricate castings whose design 
does not permit the standard quenching treatment without the \ 

introduction of undesirable quenching stresses. Aging treatments 
are also desirable for castings used at elevated temperatures and | 

for controlling the "growth" in castings where this factor must be 
considered. | 

Alloy 220-T4 has the highest combination of tensile and yield 
strengths, elongation and impact resistance of any of the alu- | 

minum casting alloys. This alloy contains ten per cent magnesium, 
and for this reason, requires special foundry technique (covered by | 

several U. S. Patents) to avoid oxidation of the magnesium from 
the surface of the metal with the consequent darkening of the | 

casting and loss in mechanical properties. Alloy 220-T4 possesses 
exceptional machining characteristics and finds application for | 
certain sand castings in which free cutting characteristic are 
desired. 



The choice of an alloy for any particular application may usual- 



on request, to assist in the selection of the alloy which is best 
suited for any requirement. 



In the case of die castings, the choice of alloy is determined 



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ly be made from the physical properties and the general char- f 

acteristics of the various alloys which have been discussed. The 
services of the technical stall' of this Company are also available, I 



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Die Castings: Die castings of aluminum alloys have the ad- I 

vantages of lightness, corrosion resistance and permanen f 
dimensions as compared with some of the other metals which are I 

used in the die-casting process. Several alloys are cast in this 
manner, those which are recommended by this Company being f 
shown in Table 18, together with their approximate comj> itiong 
and mechanical properties. 



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in some measure by the nature of the casting. The different alloys f 

have different casting characteristics, and the ability to produce 

the most satisfactory casting of the given design may often be \ 



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\U MINI \1 COM PA \ V of \ \l KM I (A • . « 



the deciding factor in the selection of the alloy, rather than the 
mechanical properties as determined from a test specimen. The 
die-casting specialist should he consulted both as to the possibili- 
ties of I Ins product and l he selection of I he alloy. 

Die ce lit offer the maximum advantages from the stand- 
poinl of low Gnishing costs be< luse of their accuracy of dimensions 

and L'uod vtirface, Saving also result because of the ability to 
cast thinner -lions than are possible by other methods. 



DESIGIN ol ALUMINUM ALLOY CASTINGS 



The mechanical properties of the various allo\s referred to in the 
for< >ing seel ion and contained in l lie tables of the Appendix, ai 
\alui obtained from standard A.S.T.M. J/2 diameter i est speci- 
mens separately ( I and tested w i t h o u t machining the gauge sec- 
tion. Th< test spi"< imens are cast under conditions whi< h du- 
plicate BS closely as possible the conditions of sol id ideation of I he 

asting. When casl under such standard conditions, these tes* 
spe< imens serv e as a conl rol of I he metal qualit y, and in t he case 

of heat -treated alloys, t hey also serve as a control of ihe heat 

treat in process, since they must be heat treated with Ih i-l- 

inga I he\ represent. 
The properties of separately cast tesl specimens do not n« &- 

arily represent the properties of 1 ommercial castings, and may 

be either higher or lower depending on a number of factors which 
influence the rate of solidification of the metal from t lie molten 
slate. For the same reasons, the properties of test specimens ma- 
chined from castings will var> depending on the location from 
which they are taken. Such foundry considerations as section 

t hit k n 9, gating and risering, chilling, pouring temperature, 

permeability and moisture content of sand, and any other factors 
which influence the rate of metal solidification, have a material 

effeel on the mechanical properties. 

These relations are not peculiar to aluminum alloy castings 
but exist in castings of all metals. They introduce two specific 
problems for the designer of cast metal part^; first, the selection 
of the proper alloy for such parts considering such factors as 
foundry characteristics and physical properties; and se »nd, the 
selection of the proper factor to apply to the properties specified 




^^ 



» » » 



I 

\L(.() \ \ LI M I M M and ITS VLUM S | 



for an alloy in determining the design stress. Such factors musl | 

take into account the type of service in which a casting will be 
used as well as the variation in the properties of the sections of | 
each commercial casting. There is no known 'rule of thumb" 
from which these factors can be determined, and in fact most de- | 

signers develop their particular method from experience with 
specific metals and types of castings. The properl ies of test speci- | 

mens machined from the specific casting being designed and 
proof load or breakdown tests on the casting assuming service | 

loading conditions, provide data which are extremely useful in this 
connection if either the design or application of I he casting is | 

new. The latter method, particularly, is finding favor a a means 
of checking the design of aluminum alloy castings. | 

The services of the engineering and technical staffs of this 
Company are available on request to assist in the selection of al- | 

loys for casting applications as well as the designing of cast parts. 



MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOT S 

AT HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES 



In common with other materials, the tensile strength, yield 
strength and modulus of elasticity of aluminum alloys are lower 
at elevated temperatures than they are al ordinary temperature* 

The elongation increases as the temperature is raised until al 
temperature a little below the melting point it drops nearly to 
zero. This corresponds to the "hot short" range of the metal. 

Factors to apply to the mechanical properties al ordinary 
temperatures, when designing for high temperature service, ai 
shown in Table 7. 

Tests made at a temper of -114°F. have shown that boih the 
tensile strength and elongation are higher than at ordinary 
temperatures. 



52 






APPENDIX 






I 

APPENDIX ! 

INTRODUCTION | 

In the Appendix will be found tables showing the phys- t 

ical properties, compositions, typical mechanical properties, 
guaranteed minimum mechanical properties, dimension E 

tolerances and available commercial sizes of the various 
aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy products. Attention z 

is called to the fact that the typical properties of the alloys 
represent approximate average values for use in comparison I 

with similar values commonly given for other materials and, 
obviously, cannot be used in purchase specifications for the I 

various alloy products. The available alloys and the limiting 
sizes shown for the different commodities represent normal • 

commercial practice. It may be possible in some cases to ex- 
ceed those limits or to produce the commodity in other I 
alloys. Inquiries for such special material should be taken up 
with the nearest sales office of the Company (See page 92). I 

In a general discussion of aluminum and its alloys, it is Dot 
possible to anticipate nor to discuss adequately all questions I 

which may arise in connection with the selection and use of 
aluminum alloys. Other booklets covering subjects such a> I 



< 



also booklets and other literature dealing with the use of 
aluminum in specific fields, such as the Dairy, Brewing, 
Power (Bus Bar and Cable Conductors) Chemical, and Food 
processing and packaging industries, may be obtained on 
application to the nearest sales office of the Company (See 
page 92). 

Moreover, the advice and assistance of the sales repre- 
sentatives and through them of the Technical and Engi- 
neering Staffs of the Company are available to users or 
prospective users of aluminum products. 



54 



i 



Machining Aluminum and Its Alloys 

The Riveting of Aluminum 

The Welding of Aluminum | 






I 
I 

I 

I 



) 



APPENDIX 



I 



TABLE 1— STANDARD COMMODITIES 

WROUGHT ALLOYS 

(Commodities marked * are standard.) 



Alloy 



2S 
3S 

4S 

us 

17S 

Alclad 17S 

A17S 
18S 

24S 
Alclad 24S 

25S 

3*S 

51S 

A51S 

52S 
53S 
70S 



Sheet 



* 
* 
* 



Plate 



* 



i m 



* 
* 



• * * 



* 
* 



* 
* 



Wire 



* 



• • 



a . 



• ■ • # 



ft ■ * 



- 



* 



* 



• m 



* t * 



• • 



* 



Rod 
and 
Bar 



* 
* 



* ■ ■ * 



■ . 



■ * » 



* ■ 



« ■ 



* * • 



* 



» 



* 



Rolled 
Shapes 



Ex- 
truded 
Shapes 



* 



• - 



* 



* 



Tubing 
and 
Pipe 



Rivets 



* 



« « 



* ■ * ■ 



• ft V * 



ft • . ■ 



ft • • ft 



* 



ft # ft ft 



ft * ft 



* 



■ « 



Forg 
ings 



* 
* 



p « « m 



■ V' 



i m m 



* 



* * 



• ■ ■ 



ft • ft 






■ * ■ 



* 



ft # 

* 

* 



* Commodities marked * are regularly produced in routine commercial pro- 
duction. Sales representatives of Aluminum Company of America should be 
consulted concerning the possibility of obtaining other commodities in the 
various alloys. For list of sales offices see page 92. 



55 






I 



» 



» » 



\LC()\ AM M I M M and ITS \ LL<M S 






l 



Alloy 



3S 

4S 

14S 

17S 

A17S 

18S 

24S 
25S 
32S 
5lS 
A51S 
52S 
53S 
70S 



TAJBLE 2— NOMINAL COMPOSITION OF 
WROUGHT ALUMINUM ALLOYS# 



Per Cent of Alloying Elements. Aluminum and Normal Impurities 

Constitute Remainder 



Copper 



4 4 
4.0 

2.5 
4.0 
4.2 
4.5 

0.8 



I (i 



Silicon 



0.8 



0.8 

12.0 

1.0 

1.0 



0.7 



Man- 
ganese 



1.25 
1.25 
0.75 
0.5 



0.5 

0.8 



7 



Mag- 
nesium 



1.0 

. 35 

0.5 

0.3 

0.5 

1.5 



1.0 


0.6 

2 5 

I 25 
0.4 



10 







Zinc Nickel 



2 



8 



Chro- 
mium 







25 



o 25 

o 



• • 



Tin 



I 
I 
1 
I 
I 
I 
I 



! 



TABLE 3— APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM 

SA N D CASTIN < ; A LLtn % 



Allow 



12 

43 
47 
108 
109 
112 
122 
142 
195 
212 
214 
216 
220 

A 334 
355 

A355 
356 
645 



I'cr Cent of Alloying Elements. Aluminum and Normal Impurities 

Constitute Remainder 



Copper 



8 



4 
12.0 
7.5 
10 
4.0 
4 
8 



3.0 

1.25 

1.4 

« m a 

2 5 



In »u 



• • 



• 



» • 



12 

12 



1.0 



1.5 



Silicon 



• 



5.0 

12.5 

3 



1 2 



4.0 
5.0 
5.0 
7.0 



* • 



Zinc 



i 



■> 



no 



Mag- 
nesium 



• • 



• • 



• • 






2 


1 


5 

■ 


I 


" 








10 








3 





5 


o 


5 



0.3 



INirkH 






o 







75 



gane 






o : 









Heat-treatment symbols have been omitted since composition does not \ai 
for different heat-treatment practices. #The coin posh ions and/or heat 
treatment of many of these alloys are patented. 



i 
i 

i 



56 



1 1 

t 



}) 






\\A \IIM \l < <>\11> \\ ^ of \ M \:\\ [CA 



« 



« 



« 



i 
i 



i 

i 

i 
i 






TABLE 4 PROPERTIES OF 


WROUGHT ALLOYS 


Wrought 

Alloys 


SpeciBc 

Gravity 


Weight 
Lba. per 
Cu. In. 


Electrical 

Conductivity 

Per Cent of 

International 

Copper Standard 


Thermal 
Conductivity 

at 100 °C 
C.G.S. Units 


2S-< ) 


2.71 


. 098 


59 


.53 


2S-II 


2.7 1 


098 


57 


.51 


SS <> 


2.73 


0.099 


50 


.45 


y A \\ 


2 . 73 


0.099 


42 


.38 


3S-MH 


2. 78 


. 099 


41 


.37 


3S II 


2 73 


0.099 


40 


.36 


4S-0 


2.72 


0.098 


4 2 


.36 


IS-^H 


2.72 


. 098 


42 


.36 


4S II 


2.72 


0.098 


42 


.40 


14S-0 


■I si. 


0.101 


.-><> 


.45 


ihl 


2. HO 


0. 101 


35 


.32 


17S 


I 79 


0. 101 


45 


.40 


17S-T 


2 79 


0.101 


30 


.27 


IKS O 


2.80 


1) lilt 


15 


.40 


18S-T 


2.80 


0. 101 


35 


.32 


*t- o 


2.77 


0.100 


50 


,45 


24S-T 


2.77 


0.100 


30 


.27 


25S-0 


2.79 


0.101 


50 


.45 


2 w 


2 7!) 


101 


35 


.32 


25S- 1' 


2 . 79 


0.101 


35 


.32 


3 O 


2.66 


0.096 


40 


. S6 


32S-T 


2.66 


. 096 


,;.-> 


.32 


51 S-0 


2 69 


. 097 


55 


.50 


51S-W 


2 69 


0.097 


45 


.40 


51S-T 


2.69 


0.097 


45 


.40 


A51S-0 


2.69 


0.097 


50 


.45 


A51S-W 


2.69 


0.097 


40 


.36 


A51S T 


2 69 


0.097 


40 


.36 


52S-0 


2.67 


0.096 


35 


.32 


52S-H 


2 67 


0.096 


35 


.32 


538-0 


2 69 


0.097 


45 


.40 


53S-VV 


2 69 


097 


40 


.36 


6SS-T 


2 69 


0.097 


40 


.36 


70S-O 


2 91 


0.105 


40 


.36 


70S-T 


2.91 


0.105 


35 


.32 




57 



» 



» » 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« 






« 



TABLE 5— APPROXIMATE RADII FOR 90° COLD BEND 
OF ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEET 

Minimum permissible radius* varies with nature of forming operation, type of 
forming equipment, and design and condition of tools. Minimum working 
radius for given material or hardest alloy and temper for a given radius can b 
ascertained only by actual trial under contemplaled conditions of fabrication. 
See Table 13 for thicknesses of sheet available in tempers produced by cold 
rolling. 



Alloy and 


Bend 


Alloy and 




Bend 


Temper 


Classification** 


Temper 




Classification** 


2S-0 


A 


A17S-0 




B 


*S-}£H 


B 


A17S-T 




1 


2S-^H 


B 








^S-%\\ 


D 


24S-0(>) 




B 


2S-H 


F 


24S-T( 1 )( 2 ) 
24S-RT( l ) 




J 

K 


3S-0 


A 








3S-KH 


B 

- 


5\>-() 




A 


SS-MH 


■» ^i 


51S-W 




F 


3S-%H 
3S-1I 


E 
G 


5 1 S-T 




K 


4S-0 


B 


52S-< > 




A 


4S-KH 


D 


52S-}£H 




G 


4S-J/ 2 H 


E 


52S-HH 




I) 


4S-%H 


G 


52S-%I1 




F 


iS-H 


11 


52S-H 




t; 


17>-OC; 


B 


:>3S-() 




A 


17S-T -) 


11 


53S-NN 




1 


L7S-RT(i) 


J 


53S-T 




G 


*See r ;jge 24. 






**For eorresponding I 


tend radii see following table: 




RADII REQUIRE 


D FOR 90° BEND IN TERMS Ol INK I 


tNi i 






Approximate Thick n rata 




B \ SGauge 


26 


20 


14 


8 


5 


2 


Inch 0.016 


032 


0.064 


J 28 


0.189 


1 1 


1 r 


% 


\6 


\4 


H 


% 


>4 


p A 




















2 B 














0-11 


n 


^- { j 











0-lt 


li l 2 t-l 


- 1) 








0-]t 


,t-l^t 


It -it 


i l i 


1 i: 


0-1 1 


0-1 1 


- 1 w 


lt-2t 


\y 2 i-:u 


it 41 


* 1 


0-1 1 


Htr-IH* 


lt-2t 


U 2 i ;;t 


21 »i 


*t t» 


s G 


Vi\>-\y$ 


\l-i\ 


iHtrSt 


it-4t 


3t -51 


41 61 


| J 


lt-*t 


llA-'Si 


*t-4t 


3t-5t 


41-01 


4t ft 


i y 2 t-9t 


2t-4t 


3t-5t 


41-01 


4t-0l 


r>\ ?i 


- K 


2t-4t 


3t-5t | 3l-5t 


4t-6t 


.'A -71 


(it lot 



Alclad 17S and Alclad 24S ran be bent over blif. smaller radii Uj Hie 

corresponding tampers of the uncoated alloy. 

Immediately after quenching, these alloys I an be formed ovei appr< d>] 

-mailer radii* 



t 
i 

E 
E 



58 



I 

I 



I 



> » » \LI MINI \l COMI'ANl of \\\\A\ l< \ 



« 



I Mil. I, ii AVERAGE COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION 

PER DEGREE 1 UIIU:\IH.[ I 









[ <-fn|)4-r 1 1 iir ■• It itiitf«« 




Allow 








■ ■ w 


i ■ F 


',.'. 1 


1 










s ■ 




ii 00001 


0000198 


o 00001 1- y 


is, 










i kS 








1 

1 




0000] 52 


00001 '.') 


OOOOI 


s 










M>> 


1108 


1 1 1 t 


OOOOI 10 




<i 00 f) 


00001 


(ii 10141 


. 


i 1 


g ooooi 


OOOOI U 




n 00001 10 


ii OOOOI U 


101 


If 


00001 


1001 10 


I too 


M 


ii 00001 it 


0187 


i 10 


17 00001 1 1 


ii 00001 19 


"i, 


1 








loo 

1 14 




ii 00001 


ii 00001 1 


II 


1 1 










1 


.. 0000 1M 


00 17 


ISO 


1 


(i o uoa 


01 


I' 1 116 


1 u 


ii 00001 


190 





1 u 


ii 0OOO1 19 


o OOOOI 19 


(i OOOOI <7 


1 


i it?: 


101 


i) |8 


III ' 5 


<> 00001 ii 


1000 J I 


{ 


hi 


u 00001*7 


ii OOOOI 1 i 


ii OOOOI is 


Hi 


ii 000011 J 


00 1 17 


Q 1000193 


1] I 

116 


ii 0000199 


o OOOOI <^ 


" 1 u 


ito 


ii 0000190 


ii 0000141 


ii ik.MT 


A ■ v 

J 


00001M 


ii OOOOI t7 


133 


A 


ii 00001 10 


ii OOOOI 1 






ooooi r> 


i) 0000 lt7 


io i |0 


1 HI 


00001 ' 






< ot 1 n 


0059 






mT 


ii 0000093 






1 t k H«t 


i) 0000150 






VI 1 


(i 00000 






\ U kt 1 


i> 00000 








I 






Zinc 


0000165 







59 



» » 



VLCO \ V LI MINI M and ITS VLUH - , 






TABLE 7— FACTORS FOB DESIGN STRESSES 
AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES 



- 



- 



Alloy 



3S-0 
3S-KU 

3S-H 

4S-0 
4S-3.H 

4S-H 

17S-T 

\ 1 7S-T 

24S-T 

25S-W 

25S-T 

51S-W 
5IS-T 

5SS-0 
:S-- 4 J1 

53S-< ) 
53S T 



12 
43 

112 

122-1 2 
122-Toi 

142 

142-T6] 
L95-T4 

214 

220-1 l 

355-Tl 

355-T< 
355-T51 

AS55-T51 
A355-T59 

356-T4 



10(1 K 



1 





1 





1 





] 


II 


I. 


II 


1 





1 


II 


1 





1 


(1 


1 


o 


1 





1 


(1 


1 





1 


. 


1 


1) 


1 


(1 


1 


(1 


1 


'I 


1 





1 


'I 


1 





1 


.0 


1 





1 


II 



I 
I 

I 

] 
I 
1.0 

1 

1 

1.0 



2no°F. 



. 85 
(i 75 
0.7 5 

o 90 
0.9O 
0.80 





1) 


90 

90 


II 

1 




85 
00 
90 


l 




00 
75 



95 



* 


• 7 *J 







B0 

85 


l 




00 

HO 


] 





<>o 
90 

90 


1 




00 

10 





95 



95 

85 

1 

o g 

o 

o 

90 




300°F. 



(i 70 

II 00 
(I 00 

(I.SD 
05 

5 5 

0.00 

O (id 

(i TO 

o : 
(i 60 

o 80 

o ..- 

90 

so 

0.60 

70 



O 95 

O 70 

o 95 

o s/, 
o so 

O DO 

so 

O SI I 

O 00 
7 

o 90 

0.85 

6 

85 

J- 



K>0°F 



o e 

o 45 

o 35 

o 50 

O 30 

25 

o SO 

30 

o 10 

o 30 
25 

o 30 
Hi 

o 7(i 
50 

o 50 
0.40 



o 85 

o 

o \ 

o : 

(i 50 

O so 

O (15 

I i 






1 





50 





,0 










50 











70 





50 



500° F 



40 









tO 



20 



i 

I 
20 

o 15 

o 10 

I 

I 'I 

o 5 

30 

50 

1 15 





o 







60 

40 

60 

20 



o >(i 

o 





o 


■0 




:0 


o 


20 





i 





Hi 


o 


.0 


o 







,0 



6(i 



» » » ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 



TABLE 8— CONVERSION FACTORS 



Weight of 


Multiplied 
By 


Gives Weight 
of Equal 


Weight of 


Multiplied 
By 


Gives Weight 
of Equal 




Volume of 




Volume of 


51S 


2.92 


Steel 


2S 


2.7 


Tin 


1 7S or 25S 


2.82 


Steel 


2S 


2.62 


Zinc 


24S 


2.83 


Steel 


2S 


1.01 


3S 


2S 


2.89 


Steel 


2S 


1.005 


4S 


2S 


3.1 


Brass 


2S 


1.03 


17S or 25S 


2S 


3.3 


Copper or Monel 


2S 


1.02 


24S 








2S 


0.985 


52S 


2S 


3.26 


Nickel 


2S 


0.99 


5lSor53S 



TABLE 9— CONDITIONS FOR HEAT TREATMENT 

OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS 

(All Temperatures in Degrees Fahrenheit) 





Solution Heat Treatment 


Precipitation Heat Treatments ) 


Alloy 


Temper- 
ature 


Approxi- 
mate 
Time of 
Heating 


Quench( 2 ) 


Temper 
Desig- 
nation 


Temper- 
ature 


Time of 

Aging 


Temper 
Desig- 
nation 


17S 

A17S 

24S 
51S 
53S 


930-950 
930-950 

910-930 
960-980 
960-980 


0) 
0) 

C 1 ) 

C 1 ) 

C 1 ) 


Cold water 
Gold water 

Gold water 
Gold water 
Cold water 


51SW 
53SW 


Room 
Room 

Room 
315-325 
315-325 


4 days( 8 ) 
4 days( 3 ) 

4 days( 8 ) 
18 hours 
18 hours 


17S-T 
A17S-T 

24S-T 

51S-T 
53S-T 



( 1 ) In a molten nitrate bath, the time varies from 10 to 60 minutes depending 
upon the size of the load and the thickness of the material. In an air fur- 
nace, proper allowance must be made for a slower rate of bringing the load 
up to temperature. For heavy material a longer time at temperature may 
be necessary. 

( 2 ) It is essential that the quench be made with a minimum time loss in transfer 
from the furnace. 

( 3 ) More than 90 per cent of the maximum properties are obtained during the 
first day of aging. 

f 4 ) Precipitation heat treatment at elevated temperatures is patented. 



61 






» 



» 



\LCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « « 



TABLE 10 TYPICAL* IM1 


ECHAr 


SIICAL 


PRO PI 


5RT 


IES 


OF 




WROUGHT ALUMINUM ALLOYS( l ) 








TENSION 


HARD- 

N ESS 


SIIRAR 


FA 
TIGUE 


Alloy 

and 
IVmper 


Yield 

Slrenglli(-) 
(Set = 

0.2%) 

Lbs. per 
Sq. In. 


Ultimate 

Strength 

Lbs. per 

Sq. In. 


Elonga 

Per Cent 


tion(«) 

: in 2 In. 


Rriuell 
500 kg. 

10 mm. 

Ball 


Shearing 
Strength^') 

Lbs. per 
Sq In. 


F!nrl 1 1 m nc< 


Sheet 

Specimen 

Ok, Inch 

Thick) 


Round 
Specimen 
(0.505 In. 
1 Hameter) 


Limit( s ) 

Lbs. per 

Sq. In. 


2S-0 


4 , 000 


13,000 


35 


4.7 


23 


! 700 


,7 , 000 


2S-MH 


l.'i.ooo 15,000 


12 


2 .7 


28 


10. 


.ooo 


0,000 


2S-HH 


14,000 17.000 


9 


20 


32 


11 


, 000 


7,000 


2S-%H 


17,000 20, 000 


6 


17 


38 


12 


,000 


8,000 


2S-H 


21 ,ooo 


24,000 


.7 


1.7 


44 


13 


,000 


8,500 


SS-0 


5,000 


16,000 


30 


40 


28 


11 


.000 


7,000 


3S-KH 


15,000 


IS. (100 


10 


20 


3.7 


12 


.000 


8,000 


.--^II 


IS, 000 


.'1 .000 


8 


16 


40 


14 


,000 


9,000 


3S-^H 


n .0110 


25,000 


5 


14 


47 


17 


.000 


9,500 


3S-II 


25,000 


20,000 


4 


10 


.7 .7 


10, 


,000 


10,000 


4S-0 


10.000 


26,000 


20 


25 


4.7 


16, 


»00 


14,000 


4S-MI 


22,000 :{o,ooo 


10 


17 


.7 2 


10 


.000 


14,500 


IS -1 ,|| 


27,000 


83,000 


!) 


12 


63 


is 


000 


15,000 


1>-%H 


31,000 37.000 


5 


9 


70 


20. 


,000 


15,500 


4S-H 


34,000 lo.ooo 


5 


o 


77 


21 


,000 


10,000 


US-TS 


12,000 


19,000 




14 


95 


so 


000 




L7S-0 


10.0110 


.000 


20 


22 : 


4.7 


is. 


000 


1 1,000 


17S-T 


35,000 


58,000 


2 < 1 


2 2 


100 


35 


000 1 


15,000 


17S-RT 


46,000 


(il ,000 


13 




1 10 


36 


000 

1 


I 


Alclad 17S-T 


32,000 


.7.7.000 


18 


• 




3 e . 


(too ! 




Alclad 17S-RT 


10,000 


57,000 


I 1 






32, 


000 i 




AlTS-O 


8,000 


22,000 


2 4 


27 


38 


1.7 


000 




A 17- I 


24,000 


4:{.ooo 


21 


27 


70 


2,7. 


000 


1 to 


24S-0 


10,000 


26,000 


20 


22 | 


42 


1H, 


000 




24S-T 


13,000 5,000 


20 


22 


10.7 


40. 


(too ' 

1 


14,000 


24S-RT 


000 


08,000 


16 


• 


116 


41, 


000 


14,500 


Alclad 24S-T 


40,000 


60,000 


18 




- 


89, 


000 




Alclad 24S-R1 


40,000 


62,000 


11 






81 


000 , 




51S-0 


6,000 


10.000 


: 


35 


28 


11 , 


000 


) 10 


51S-W 


mi. 000 35,000 


24 


80 


04 


24, 


,000 


lo iOO 


5 1 S-T 


000 


48,000 


14 


1(1 


0.7 


30, 


000 


10,600 


52S-G 


14.000 


,000 


u 


) 


4.7 


18, 


too 


17. '»oo 


52S-KH 


26,000 


. 100 


12 


18 


02 


20, 


ooo ; 


1 8 )0 


5 2S- Nil 


i0 37.000 


10 


14 


07 


21. 


000 


19,000 


5if^- : ' 4 n 


34,000 39,000 


8 


10 


74 


z 


000 


20 , 000 


52S-H 


36,000 41,000 


7 


8 


85 


24. 


100 


2' -00 



I 
I 
I 
I 



62 



i 



I 



, » * AM MINUM COMPANY of AM KKICA « « « 

TABLE 10— TYPICAL* MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 
WROUGHT ALUMINUM AJLLOYSC 1 )— Continued 



Alloy 

tnd 
t emper 



18S <> 

i tS W 



TENSION 


HARD- 
Nl 


SHEAR 


FA- 
TIGUE 


Yield 

- 
J ,) 

11.1 |M ( 


I'llimute 
Strength 
Lbi i"T 

Scj. In, 

If; (MM) 

000 

88,000 


IJ'.n^i tion( 3 ) 

Per * <nt in 2 In. 


Hririell 

iOO kg. 

10 in in. 

Ball 


Shearing 
trength(<) 

l-ln per 
Sq In. 


1 n>|iir incr 


Sheet 
Specimen 

Ois Inch 

Thick) 


Round 
^(.ocimen 
(0.505 I. 
Diameter) 


Limit(») 

l.ln per 

Sq. In 


1 ,000 
20 000 
82,000 


25 

22 
1 I 


30 
20 


26 
65 

HO 


11,000 
22,000 

20.00D 


7,500 
10,000 
1 1 .000 



*Foi guaranteed minimum values, see Tables into 17 and 19. 

j Young's modulus of clasii< ity is approximately lo, :hhm>uo pounds per 
square inch. 

(2 >ti i which |»ro<lii( e i permanent sel of 0.£ per rent of th< -mil id gauge 
length. ( XriM f ican i( I \ for Testing Materials Specif* ati n for Mel hods 
of Tension I '■■ rt ing, K 8-8S.) 

Elongation values \ an with the form and size of tension tesl specimen. 
linn sheet has somewhat lower elongation than values For '^ inch sheet 
shown in table Thicker material, from which standard round tension test 

specimens (0.505 inch diameter) are tested, may have lower elongatnm 

Ih-« auae of the eff« I of commer* d Ma timing operations on this property. 

I) Si \i shear strength values obtained from double-shear tests. 
i ' Based on withstanding 500, 000,000 cycles of completely reversed stress. 

using the \\. R. Moore type of machine and specimen. 






63 



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ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



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64 



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» ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « 



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65 



VLCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALIAH S 



TABLE 12-PROPERTIESO) OF ALUMINUM PERMANENT 

MOLD ALLOYS( 8 ) 





Approximate Composition — 

Per Cent of Alloying Elements; 

Aluminum aud Normal Impurities 

Constitute Remainder 


Mini- 
mum 
Ultimate 
Strength 

Pounds 

per 

Square 

Inch 


Mini- 
mum 
Elonga- 
tion 
Per Ceni 
in 2 
Inches 


BrinellC) 
Hardness 


Typical 
Dens- 
ity 

Pounds 

per 
Cubi< 

I lllll 


ALLOY 


u 

•_ 

ft 

- 




a 
2 

■ ■ 
« * 
A * M 


CO 


u 

a 

* 

1.5 


s 

'i 

p 

■ * 

» a ■ 

• • - 


• * 
■ ■ 


43 

A108 

112 


• • 

4.5 

7. .5 


5 . 
5.5 

* 


21,000 

24,000 

23,000 


2.5 

• 


45 55 

65-80 ! 

70-90 


0.097 

o.ioo 

0.104 


B113 
C113 


7.5 

7.5 


1.2 
1.2 


1.5 

4.0 


■ 

1 . 5 


• 


• • 
1 


24,000 
(4 ooo 




70 00 

70 90 


0.103 
0.103 


122-T52 

122-T(ia 

L23-T551 
122-T552 


10.0 
10.0 
10.(1 

10.0 


1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 


• 


i 

■ 


►.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 


* * 

* 

■ 


27,000 

{8,000 

30,000 
27,000 




95 125 
1 2 1 50 
125-150 
KM* 125 


0.101 

0.104 

0.101 
0.101 


Al T4 

U32-T551 


0.: 
0.8 


0.8 

o s 


12.0 

12.0 




1.0 

1.0 


2 . :> 
2.5 


30,000 
50,000 




90 120 
85 115 


o 097 

0.007 


138 

Hi 

142-T61 
14fc-T571 


10.0 
4. (J 
4.0 
4.0 


1.2 

• 
■ - 


4.0 

• - • 


■ 

• 4 


0.2 
1 .2 
1.2 
1.2 


• 

2.0 
2.0 
2.0 


£6,000 
26,000 

40,000 
33,000 




85-110 

90 1 15 

100 130 

00 120 


0.105 

o.ioo 

O.ioo 

U. KM) 


144 
144 14 


10.0 
10.0 


• 


4.0 
4.0 


• 


0.2 
0.2 


• • 
• 


26,000 
86,000 


• 


85 110 

100 130 


I) 105 
0.105 


B195-T4 

B195-T62 

D195-T4 


4 . 5 

4.5 
5. 


■ 

• • 


2.8 
2.8 

0.7 


• 


• « 

• » • 


■ 
» 
» 


33,000 
12,000 
35,000 


4 . 5 
5.0 


70 90 
00 110 
00 80 


101 

0.101 

0.102 


A214 
355-T4 
355 -To 


• 

1.2 
1.2 


• * 

« 


• 

5.0 
5 . 


2.0 

• 

• 


3.75 
. 5 

< i 5 


• 


21,000 

81,000 

30,000 


2.5 
4.5 
1.5 


5005 

70- 

85 100 


0.0 

0.0 
0.09 



Properties obtained from standard ^£-inch diameter test hj iiueos, ind 
\iduall SSt in a permanent mold, and tested withoul machining off the 

surf The composition md/or heal treatment and tb hill casting ol 

mans of these alios s are patented. 

Brinell limits obtained from tests on commercial casting For 12* and J < 
all,, ,;,]u r i j 1 1 > to readings taken on piston head H inch from ed and 
inch from gate on pistons lia\intr thirkjj<iss of head up lo (eh. 

Thicker -in -tii | ured wiU rid OOre or pour< in sand gi\ 

louer values, the maximum decren I ing about 20. 

8 Young's modulus of elasticity is approximately 10,300,000 pounds p< 
square inch. 



r 
I 

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E 

E 

i 

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66 






t 



M.l \l I \ I \l COMPANY of \ \1 EB h \ 



TABLE I 



Ml HANK I. PROPERTIES SPE< li H:ATI« >sS I l »H 

SHKK'l AM) PLA I I. t- . 4- 52S 









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7* ' •' i|.. i >ir Ii! I' .1 l« Mi| i 

MAX! \li M \ND Ml Ml \n M • MMERC1A1 i Hi' K SI 

I I \ I \\l LKI> SIIKKT IN mi 



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010 

1 





,11 
II 

i," 



^Maximum N ti to uisun unplrtr 

In the l ^ 1 1 mill _H tempers, coiled ibe*et uui > ba .in . * ; 

cent lower than the above values I >t n inn -n- < n parallel 

of rolling I in tlat and iletl sheet in l 4 ll and l jH tn 



o: 



» 



» 



» 



A.LCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« 









TABLE 14 



MECHANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATIONS 
FOR 17S ALLOY PRODUCTS 



Wire, Rod, Bar and Shapes 



Material 


Dimensions^) 
(Inches) 


Tensile 

Strength 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 

Minimum 

Except for 

17S-0* 


Yield 

Strength 

(Set = 0.2%) 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 

Minimum 


* 

'■1 Z 

£ Z - 

§.ao I 


17S-0 

Sheet and Plate 
17S-T 

Sheet and Plate 

17S-RT 
Sheet 

Alclad 17S-0 
Sheet 

Alclad 17S-T 
Sheet and Plate 

Alclad 17S-RT 
Sheet 


0.010—0.500 

0.010— 020 
021— 040 
041— 128 
0.129—0.258 
0.259— 500 
0.501—1.250 

0.020—0.031 
0.032— 036 
0.037—0 188 

010— 032 
0.033— 064 
065— 250 

010— 020 
021—0 128 
128—0 250 
0.251— 500 

0.020— 031 
0.032—0.036 
0.037—0.188 


35,000* 

55,000 
55,000 
55,000 
55,000 
55,000 
55 , 000 

55,000 
55,000 
55,000 

30,000* 
30,000* 
30,000* 

50,000 
50,000 
50.000 
50,000 

50,000 
50,000 
50,000 


32,000 
32,000 
32,000 
32,000 
32 , 000 
32,000 

42,000 
42,000 
42,000 

t 

28,000 
28 , 000 
28,000 
28,000 

37,000 
37,000 
37,000 


12 

15 

17*** 

18 

15 

12 

10 

10 
11 
12 

8 
10 
12 

13 
16 
13 
11 

8 

9 

10 



17S-0 Wire 


up to 0.124 

0.125—8.000 
up to 0.124 

0.125—0.750 
0.751—3.000 
S. 00 1—8.000 

up to 0.750 
0.751—3.000 


35,000* 

35,000* 
55,000 

55,000 
53,000 
50,000 

53,000 
50,000 

50,000 
50,000 






17S-0 

(RoUed or extruded) 

17S-T Wire 




12 






17S-T 

Rounds, squares, 
hexagons, octagons, 
(rolled) 

17S-T 

Rectangular bars 

17S-T 
Structural shapes 
(rolled) 

17S-T 
Extruded shapes 


30, 
30, 
28, 

30, 

28, 

30, 
35, 


OOOOO o o 

ooooo o o 

OOOOO o o 


18 
18 
16 

16 
16 

16 




12 







i 

1 

F 
E 

E 

E 




i 

i 



68 



5 



e 



* » 



\\A Ml \ I M COMPANY of A M E R I C A * « « 



FABLE 14 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATION- 

FOR 17S ALLOY PRODUCTS— Continued 



Mnl a I 




Tensile 

trength 
Pound i pw 

\l illinium 

J pi for 

l 



^ ield 

Sln-ti).' 

Pound p 

I ru li 

\l in ilium 



I ubing 



17S 

17S I 



KT 



All 

}/.i i incl. 

i l I x '<i tn< I. 

over 1 9 in* I. 

All 



ooo 

5.". 000 
55,000 



I <iKi!igi 



i ;s T 



H(i to t 



,000 



§a.s* 

lie": 

E 



3 



-i 





Lfl 



*\l mum. So i ified to insuri iplete anm i#. 

••Km a rod tnd bar the gauge length is four times ihr diameter or 
tanc< between parallel surfaces except when a flat test s\ im« usr.i 

M *Foi l» i in 3n inch< - wid< lonf.' »n^n Ml lie 18% in i in. 



(i) Foi ^li» el md Plate ™ Thickness. 
I . \\ M ♦•, Mini und Bai ■ l>i tmeter 

surfaces. 
1 it rubing ■ < Kitaide I )i;mirt«T. 
I I orgings — Diameter or thickne 



I* I distance beta a parallel 



69 



» 



» » 



VLCOA VLl MINI M and ITS ALLOYS 



■A 



t 



TABLE 15 



IMEGIiANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATIONS 
FOR 24S ALLOY PRODUCTS 



Material 



Dimensions^) 
(Iuehes) 



Tensile 

Strength 

Pounds jut 

Square Inch 

Minimum 

Except for 

24S-0* 



Sheet and Plate 



24S-0 

24S-T 



24S-RT 



Alclad 24S-0 



Aiclad 24S-T 



Aklad 24S-RT 



0.010— U. 500 
0.010—0.020 

0.021 — 0.128 

0.129—0.250 
. 020—0 . 03 1 
0.032—0.036 

037— 0.188 
0.010—0.032 

033— 0.064 
005—0 . 250 
010— 0.020 
021—0. 128 
129— 250 
020— 0.031 
032—0.040 

0.041—0.188 



\\ ire, Rod, Bar and Shapes 



24S-0 Wire 
24S-0 

(Rolled or extruded 

24S-T 

Bounds, square. 
OCtagOH8 (rolled) 

24S-T 

Rectangular bars 

24S-T 

Extruded shapes 



up to (J 124 inel. 



0.125—8.000 



0.125—3.000 



up to 3 x 4 



35,000* 
35,000* 



62,000 
62,000 

57 , 000 



Tubing 



Yield 

Strength 

(Sel = 0.2%) 

Pounds pt*r 

Square Inch 

Minimum 



40,000 
40,000 

42,000 



24S-0 


All 


35.000* 


- 


24--T 


14 * ( j 1 unci. 


62,000 


40,000 




u\ er 1 — \Y% incl. 


62,000 


40,000 




over 1 l /2~H inch 


02,000 


40,000 



2 c 



* 

esc 



c: z 
e* - 



Z D 



W JP -9 






35,000* 




12 


62,000 


40,000 


15 


62,000 


40,000 


17 


62,000 


40,000 


15 


65,000 


50,000 


10 


05,000 


50.000 


11 


65,000 


50,000 


12 


30,000* 


• 


8 


30,000* 




10 


30,000* 




12 


56,000 


37 , 000 


13 


56,000 


37,000 


16 


50,000 


3 000 


13 


58,000 


40,000 


8 


58,000 


46,000 


9 


58 , 000 


40,000 


10 



12 



16 



I i 



12 



16 

1* 



* Maxim urn. So specified to insure complete annealing. 
**For wire, rod and bar the gauge length is four times the diameter or 

distance between parallel surfac except when a flat test specimen tsu 1 

( l ) For Sheet and Plate— Thickness. 

For \\ ire, Hod and Bar = Diameter or least distant e bet w- 1 p lie! sur- 
fac 
For Tubing = Out side Diameter. 



70 



\ I i mini M COMPANY \ \! ii; h \ 



I \l .1 I it; 



II \ ,| I'I'J »l'l I' Mi ICA N 



+ tm 





















ii 















mm) I 






U v\ 



y i 



I 



\ 



• ill 









I Mt 



II 

010 I) 



I 





















i 






I 

I 
I 

I 



i 
I 



I •( 









I 












t II 



Ml 




i 



ii 












i 






• k i 



» i a i . 



tfi HI 



V 



• 



w 















I 












• 














! 


1 









Uf I 



k 






- 



• \l ill 

•I 

4 



I I 






II 



p.ir i: ; i > l 



. ih 



th or 



H 







71 



y> » » 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLCH - 



« « € 



TABLE 17 



MECHANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATIONS 
FOR 53S ALLOY PRODUCTS 



Material 



Dimensions(') 
(Inches) 



Tensile 

Strength 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 

Minimum 

Except for 

53S-0* 



Yield 

Strength 

(Sot =0.2%) 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 

Minimum 



Sheet and Plate 



53S-0 



53S-W 



53S-T 



0.010— 0.032 
0.033—0.128 
0.129—0.500 



0.010 
0.021 
0.250 

O.Oln 
0.032 



0.020 
249 
0.500 

0.031 
500 



Wire, Rod, Bar and Shapes 



53S-0 \\ ire 
53S-0 (Rolled) 
53S-0 Extruded 

53S-W Wire 

53S-W 

Rounds, squares, 
hexagons, octagons, 
rectangles (rolled 

53S-W 

Shapes (rolled or 
extruded) 

53S-T \\ ire 

53S-T 

Rounds, squares, 
hexagons, octagons 
(rolled) 

53S-T 

Rectangles ''rolled) 

5SS-T 

Shapes (extruded or 
rolled) 

53S-T5 (extruded) 



up to 0. 124 

0.12.3—3 000 



up to 0. 124 



0. 125—3 000 



up to 0. 124 



0. 125 3 000 



up to 750 

751—3.000 



AH 



19,000* 
19,000* 
19,000* 

28 , 000 
28 , 000 
28,000 

35 , 000 
35 . 000 



19,000* 
19,000* 
19,000* 
25,000 



25,000 



25,000 
32,000 



14,000 



14,000 



32,000 



25,000 



32,000 
32,000 



32.000 



22,000 



25,000 
25,000 



25 , 000 
1 6 , 000 



* 

o.S^ 3 

CO g-- p 






•X. '- 



a 




20 



18 









• • 



14 



14 



10 



10 



"2 



» » » ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 



FABLE 17— MECHANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATIONS 

FOR 53S ALLOY PRODUCTS— Continued 



Mnteriiil 



Dimensions^) 

(Inches) 



Tensile 

Strength 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 

Minimum 
Except lor 

53S-0* 



Yield 
Strength 

(Set = 0.2%) 
Pounds per 

Square Inch 
Minimum 



cm 



* 

z 2 

a 



Tubing 



Foi rim 



53S-0 


All 


19,000* 




« • 


53S-W 


l /i — 1 incl. 
over 1 — \ x /l incl. 
over \Yi — 8 incl. 


28,000 
28,000 
28,000 


14,000 
14,000 
14,000 


18 
20 
18 


53S-T 


34 — 1 incl. 
over 1 — 1}4 incl. 
over \ x /i — 8 incl. 


35,000 
35 , 000 
35,000 


28,000 
28,000 
28,000 


16 
14 
12 



;S-T 



up to 4 inches 



36 , 000 



30,000 



16 



* Maximum. So specified to insure complete annealing. 

**For wire, rod and bar the gauge length is four times the diameter or dis 
tame between parallel surfaces except when a flat test specimen is used 



1 (For Sheet and Plate = Thickness. 
For Wire, Hod and Bar = Diameter 

surfaces. 
Fur ibi rig == Outside Diameter. 
For Forgings = Diameter or thickness. 



or least distance between parallel 



73 



HH 



IM^^HB^^^M^H 



» 



\LCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 






TABLE 18— GHEIMIGAL COMPOSITION AND TYPICAL 
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES^) OF DIE-CASTING ALLOYS(2) 



Alloy 


Nominal Chemical 
Composition( 3 ) 


Ultimate 

Strength 

Lbs. per 

Sq. Iu. 


Elongation 

Per Cent 

in 2 Inches 


Copper 


Silicon 


Nickel 


13 

81 
82 

83 
85 
93 


8. (J 
4.0 
2.0 
4.0 

4.0 


12.0 
3.0 
5.0 
3.0 
5.0 
2.0 


4 


33,000 
32,000 
44,000 
30,000 
35.00(1 
32.000 


13 
13 
0.2 
3.5 
3 
1 



( 1 ) Tensile properties are average of values obtained from A. S.T.M. standard 
round die-cast test specimen, x /± inch in diameter. Brinell Hardness ob- 
tained from A. S.T.M. standard flat die-cast test specimen, l /% inch thick, 

iisin^r \i:> kg. load and .5mm. ball. 

( 2 ) Young's modulus of elasticity for all of the above alloys is approximately 
10,300.000 pounds per square inch. 

( 8 ) The composition and chill casting of many of these alloys are patented. 



I U'.LE 19— MECHANICAL PROPERTIES SPECIFICATIONS 

FOB ALUMINUM ALLOY FORGINGS* 



\ll..v 


Miniriium 
Tensile 

Strength 


Yield Strength 

(Set = <) 2%) 

Pounds per 


Minimum 

Klongalion 

Per (^ent 


Brinell 
Hardness 

500 kg.-lOmi 

» Hi 




rounds per 
Square Inch 


juare Inch 
Minimum 


in 2 Inches** 


ball 
Minimum 


1 4S-T 


65,000 


50,000 


10 


1 30 


17S-T 


55 , 000 


30,000 


16 


00 


18S-T 


55.000 


35,000 


8 


90 


25S-T 


55 , 000 


30 ,000 


16 


90 


32S-T 


52,000 


40,000 


5 


110 


51S-T 


40 , 000 


30,000 


12 


90 


A51S-T 


43,000 


34,000 


12 


90 


53S-T 


30 . 000 


30 , 000 


16 


75 


70S-T 


50 , 000 


40,000 


16 


f • 



"Applies to forgings uj) to 4 inches in diameter or thickness. 

**The gauge length for the measurement of elongation shall be four times 
the diameter of the test specimen in case a sub-size test specimen i& u-< <f 



74 



\LUMINUM COMPANY o/ AMERICA * 



TABLE 20— COMIVIEHCIAL TOLERANCES FOR SHEET AND PLATE 

ALL ALLOYS 

Thickness Tolerances 

II \ l si 1 1 i i -ALL ALLOYS; COILED SHEET— 17S, ALCLAD 17S, 24S. 

ALCLAD24S, 51S 



In' k M- 



B \ S 




tnK6 




;-8 





9-10 


II 


1 1 12 


1 


: 1 


o 


17 18 





1 <-2 


II 


IG 10 









I riches 



Tolerance (Plus or Minus) in inches except where 
shown as per cenl "f nominal thickness (T) 



\\ i. III. 

I fp to 

18" 

III! I 



I I 

I is 
- 2 

050 
0.086 

(117 



to I J9 

In I) 09 ' 

to0 n; I 
i., 0.051 

H i» 
i., 0.018 
010 



IT 
0.004 
0.003 
n 0( 
0.002 
0015 

(ID! 



Width 

Over I 

i., (6* 

I in l 



4%'l 
. 00 t 

0.003 

0.003 

0.01 

on ! 

001 



Width 

<<.. r 36' 

to 5 1 " 

Incl 



5 


%T 





hi),-, 





004 





not 





003 


(i 


. 002 


ii 


002 



Width 

Over.ir 

to 72" 

Incl. 



Width 

OverT. 

to l )<>" 
Incl. 



Width 

< Iver 
to L02 
Incl 



I 
007 

:i 006 

i ■ 

0.0' >i 



I 

"Oil 
ni>8 
i) HUT 



8 I 

Oil' 



COII ID SHEET 2S, 3S I 



l liickuess 



i s 



Tolerance (Plus or Minus) in inches 



Inch* 



10-11 

12 
13 16 

17 
18-20 

*5-29 

52 

I 84 



0.102 i 

0.0'HI tO 

072 I 

050 to 
040 to 
0.029 to 

') 018 to 
0.010 to 

M 007 to 



n if»l 

0.051 

. 04 1 
030 
0.01 

Oil 

0.008 

0.000 



Widili I i. 

12" 
I ml 



003 
ii 008 
0.0025 

0.0025 

n i)n-2 

u.002 

0.0015 

0.001 

0.001 



Width* 

12" to 24* 
Incl 



ii 003 
. 003 
0.003 
0.002 5 

. 0025 

o.o<^ 

0.002 
'"115 
0.001 



Width 
Over 
21 



0.004 

i ; 

"003 

n.0025 

0.0025 

Hi I 



Tolerance applies up to Maximum \\ idlh shuvwi in Table 31 





PLATE— ALL ALLOYS 








Tolerunce (Plus or Minus) in 


per rent of nominal thickness 


Thickness 
(1 DCli 


Width 1 |. 

t,> 54* 
Incl. 


Width * 1 -er 

St* to 7. 
Incl. 


\\ olih Over 

72" to 90* 

Incl. 


Width Over 

90" to 120* 

1 ncl. 


3 000 to 1.001 

1.000 to 501 

o ^00 to 0.:i::> 

374 to 0.250 


3 
4 
5 
5 


3 
4 
5 
6 


4 

5 
6 
7 


5 
6 

— 

7 
8 



75 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 



<K « 



TABLE 21 



COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOR SHEET AND PLATE 

ALL ALLOYS 

Width, Length, Diameter 

FLAT SHEET— SHEARED 

Width Tolerance (Plus or Minus), Inches 



Thickness 


Width 

M" to4* 

Incl. 


Width 

Over 4" 

to 18" 

IdcI. 


Width 

Over 18" 

to 36" 

Incl. 


Width 

Over 36" 

to 54" 

Incl. 


Width 

Over 54* 

to 72* 

Incl. 


Width 

Over 72* 

to 102" 

Incl. 


B&S 

Gauge 


I riches 


3-9 

10-34 


0.249 to 0.103 
0.102 to 006 


Ml 


Hi 

He 


Hi 


He 
A 


He 

Hi 


S 1«S 



Leugth Tolerance (Plus or Minus), Inches 



Thickness 


Length 

Up to 18* 

Incl. 


Length 

Over 18* to 

48* Incl. 


Length 

Over 48* to 

120" Incl. 


Length 

Over 120* to 

180* Incl. 


Length 

Over 180* to 

5H " Incl. 


All Gauges 


He 


Ht 


y% 


% 


l A 



COILLD SHEET— SHEARED 
W idth Tolerance (Plus or Minus), Inches 



Thickness 



B&S Gauge 



10 to 34 



Inches 



0.102 to 0.000 



Width 

H" to 

3" Incl 



] 4i 



Width 

Over 3" to 
24" Incl 



Hi 



Width 

Over 

24" 



Hi 



SHEET CHUXES— SHEARED 
Diameter Tolerance (Plus or Minus), Inches 



Thick rif-ss 



Diameter 
5" to 18" Incl 



All Gauges 



\4i 



I >iameter 

Over 18* 



8 



Hi 



SHEET AND PLATE— SAWED 
Dimension Tolerance (Plus or Minus), Inches 



Thickness 
(Inches) 



Up to 3 



Dimensions 
Up to 10* Inci 



Vn 



Dimensions 
Over 10* to 56* 

Incl. 



Hi 



6 



Dimensions 

Over 56* to 60* 

Inch 



3 



% 



Dine ontj 

er60* 
Iu. 



8 



Mk 



PLATE— SHEARED 
Width and Length Tolerance (Plus only), Inches 



Thickness* 
(Inches) 



Width 
Tolerance** 



1.500 to 1.001 
1.000 to 0.501 
500 to 0.250 



A 

A 

3 



length Tolerance 



Length I'p to 
12 ft. 

It 

A 
A 



Length Over 
12 ft to 20 ft 



Length O * 

20 ft to 1 



l He 
He 

He 



A 

A 



•Capacity of plate shear varies with grade and temper of alloy. Maximum thickness for heat- 
treated alloys (T) is 0.625 inch, for other alloys, 1 inch. Thicker plate must be sawed. 

••Maximum width 130 inches. For thicknesses 0.250 to 0.375 inches the minimum width is 
6 inches; tor thicknesses 0.376 to maximum shearing thickness and lengths up to JO feet 8 
inches minimum width; for longer plates. 18 inches is the minimum width of red Mate 

narrower widths must be sawed 



76 



» 



» 



\LUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA 



« 



« 



6 



TABLE 22— COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOR 

EXTRUDED PRODUCTS 

SHAPES 

Cross-Sectional Tolerances 



I hiuensions — Inches 



0.000 to 

0. 126 to 
0.501 to 
1 .001 to 
2 . 001 to 
;.001 to 
4.001 to 
5.001 to 
6.<Hil to 

7.001 to 

8.001 to 

U.OOl to 

10.001 to 

11.001 to 



0.125 
0.500 
1 . 000 
2.000 
3.000 
fc.OOO 
5.000 
6 . 000 
7.000 
8.000 
9.000 

io (loo 

11.000 
12.00H 



2S, 3S, 4S and 17S,24S, 51S, 

53S — Not Heat Treated 

Plus or Minus — Inches 



.007 
.010 
.015 
.017 
.020 
.025 
.030 
.035 
.040 
045 
.050 
.055 
.060 
.065 



17S, 24S, 51S, 53S 

Heat Treated 

Plus or Minus — Inches 



.010 
.015 
. 020 
.025 
.030 
.035 
.040 
.045 
.050 
.055 
.060 
.065 
.070 
.080 



ROUND, SQUARE, RECTANGULAR, HEXAGON 



Dimensions — Inches 



All Grades — As Extruded or Heat Treated 

Plus or Minus — Inches 



up to . 500 
0.501 to 1.000 
1.001 to 2.000 
2.00 1 to 3.000 
3.00 1 and over 



.007 
.010 
.012 
.015 
.018 



EXTRUDED AND DRAWN ROD 



Dimensions — Inches 



0.375 to 0.500 
0.501 to 1.000 
1.001 to 2.500 



\ll Grades — As Extruded or Heat Treated 

Plus or Minus — Inches 



.0015 

.002 

.0025 



Length Tolerances 



Length — Feet 



Up to 13 
Over 13 



Tolerance — I n c h es 



0, + H 

0,4- 




Standard Structural Shapes, rolled or extruded, (Channels, I-beams, Angles, 
Z's and T's) in which the thickness of web, flange, or leg is not less than 0.140 
inches are manufactured to a tolerance of 2M> per cent (plus or minus) on 
the nominal weight of the section. Actual weight shipped is invoiced. 



77 



» » 



» 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« « 



« 



TABLE 23— COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOR TUBING 

1. ROUND TUBING 

Diameter Tolerance 



Nominal Diameter 
I riches 



Greater 
Greater 
Greater 
Greater 
Greater 
Greater 
Greater 



than 
than 
than 
than 
than 
than 
than 



z Atoy 2 

l A to 1 

1 to 2 

2 to 3 

3 to 5 

5 to 6 

6 to 8 
8 to 10 



incl. 
incl. 
incl. 
incl. 
incl. 
incl. 
incl. 
incl. 



Tolerance in Inches (Plua or minus) 



Mean Diameter* 
or Pi- tape meas- 
urement— 2S. :ss, 

ITS. 24S, 51S, 
52S, 53S 



Individual Measurement of Diameter 

(out-of-rouudness) 



0.003 
004 
0.00.3 
. 000 
0.008 
010 
0.015 
020 



2S, 3S. 52S, except 
CJ) Soft (O). or 
(2) thin wall** 

luhes 



ITS, 2 IS. SIS. 5 

2S-O.3S-0, 52SO, 

and thin wall** 
tubes 



. 003 


006 


0.004 


008 


00.5 


0.010 


000 


0.012 


008 


o 016 


010 


020 


015 


030 


0.020 


040 



Mean Diameter is the average of any two measurements of diameter taken 

at right angles to each other at any point along the length of tin tube 
**Thin wall = less than # 6 of diameter. 

N\ all Thickness Tolerance 



Nominal Wall Thickness (T) 

(Inch) 



0.010 
030 
050 
121 
0.204 
801 
376 



to . 035 
to 0.049 
to 0. 120 
to 0.203 
> . 300 
to 375 
to 0.500 



Tolerance in Inches (Plus or minus) 



Mean* Wall 
Thickness 



ITS, 2 IS, 51S, 53S 



002 

003 
. 004 
005 
008 
0.012 
0.032 



1 adividual measurements 

of waif thickn 



17S. 24S. 5 IS. 53S 



2S, 3S, 52 



10' 

i o ' ; 
io% 

10' 

10% 

10% 
10< 



of T 

of T 
of T 

of T 

of T 
of T 
of T 



002 
008 

004 

oo.-, 

0.008 
012 

032 



♦Mean wall thickness is the average of the two measurements taken at ©DOCK 
ends of any diameter of the tube. 

Length Tolerances — All Alloys 



■Nominal Outside Diameter Inches 



i'lus Tolerance in Inches 



!4i to 34 exclusive 
% to 2 inclusix 
Greater than 2 to 3 inclusive 
Greater than 3 to 10 inclusive 



Length 

2' or I.. 



He 



CI 



14 



78 



I 

! 
I 

I 
I 
I 

i 
I 
E 

i 
I 
f 

i 



t 



f 



• » 



ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « * « 



TABLE «S— COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOR TUBING— Continue. I 

Straightneas I <<lerance — All alloys, all tempers except soft* 



Outside I > in meters* (FiicIh-h.j 



y % I- i<» 



Tolerance 



One part in 1200 parts of length, e.g., 0.1 inch in 

10 feet 



♦Tubing in the soft temper or in diameters less than % inch is supplied coin 

hi' r< 'dly St r .'III 



11 II ^\ A1NUAH 


U iKl^Lf IL/V I 


I\/\ MJLL,/\ V I J 


l. jr. ^ &&1 <*& 






(> 1) 


1 D 






; I in hi a 


Tolerance 


rolerauce 


Straightneae 


Length 




In' lies 


Io> 4 






}4 to 14 inci. 


+0.00 i . -0 


+ 0-0.003 


Same 


Same 


( ireatei t ban Yi to 2 incl. 


+0.008-0 


+0-0.005 


as on 


as on 

■ 


i< r i ban £ to 4 incl. 


+0.010-0 


+0,-0. mi? 


• '.iiiinercial 


ommercial 


i,m itei i ban * to 6 incl. 


+0.012-0 


+ 0,-0.008 


round 


round 


i Greater than 6 to 8 incl. 


+0.01 I -0 


+0,-0.009 


tubing 


tubing 



rABLE 84— COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES OF ROLLED 
I lUICTURAL SHAPES; APPLICABLE TO SIZES AND 
SECTIONS INCLUDED IN TABLE 36 



1 >irnriisioQti 



Chick i I Se< lion 



OvfMnll I dimensions. 

Length of leg of angles or Zees 

Lengtii 

Up i" iu feet, not inclusive. 
*o feet to 80 feet, inclusive. 
Ovei 30 feet. 

Channels, overall width. 

( lhannels, n idth of Han* 



Weight f a lot or shipment of sizes 
3 inches or larger. 



1 1 ►France 



Plus or minus £}/^> per cent of nom- 
inal thickness — minimum tolerant 
±0.010 inch. 

Plus or minus 2j^j per cent of nom- 
inal — minimum tolerance ± x 4& inch. 

Minus 0, Plus x /i inch. 
Minus 0, Plus % inch. 

Minus 0, Plus H inch- 
Plus Mt inch, minus Vfi inch. 

Plus or minus 4 per cent of nominal 
width. 

Plus or minus i. l /i per cent of nom- 
inal weight.* 



* Actual weight shipped is invoiced. For sizes smaller than 3 inehes, dimension 
tolerances only apply. 



79 



» $ » 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« 



TABLE 25— COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOR \MRE, ROD 

AND BAR— ALL ALLOYS 

ROLLED ROD ROUND (ALL ALLOYS) 





Tolerance — Inches 




Tolerance — I uches 


Diameter 




Diameter 
Inches 




Inches 












Plus 


Minus 




Plus 


Mid us 


1 .301 to 3.409 


0.008 


0.008 


5 001 to 8.000 




i 
y$2 


3.500 to 5.UUU 


ha 


\& 










ROLLED BAR i 


(ALL ALLOYS) 






(Squares, Hexagonsf, Octagonsf, Rectangles 


) 


Least Distance 

Across Flats 

Inches 


Tolerance — ] nches 
Plus or Minus 


Width 

(of Rectangles) 

Inches 


Toleruiice— I lichee 
iMiitf or Minus 


up to . 500 


0.00G 


up to 1.500 


Mi 


0.501 lo 0.750 


. 008 


1.501 to 4.000 


i 


0.751 to 1.000 


0.012 


4.001 to 0.000 


Hi 


1.001 to 8. 000 


0.010 


G.001 to 10.000 


He 


2.001 to 3.000 


. 020 




■ V 



COLD FINISHED WIRE, ROD AND BAH (ALL ALLOYS) 

(Hounds, Squares, Hexagons, Octagons) 
Rectangles up to 3 00* wide (provided area is not greater than 3 square ilk h. v 



Diameter or 

Dislance Across Flats 

Inches 



Tolerance -Inch* 

Phis or Minus 



Hounds 



up to 0.0359 

086 to 0.004 
0.065 to 0.500 
0.501 to 1.000 

1 .001 to 1.500 
1 501 to 3, 0(H) 






,0005 





.001 





. 00 1 s 





.00^ 





00^5 



Square 
I Lexagona 

Octagons 










001.5 
00 £ 
00*5 
003 



Hcctungtes 



0015 

0.008 
0.0085 

003 

o 00 



COLD FINISHED RECTANGLES* 2S, 3S, 52S and 53S 



Thickness 
Incites 



up to 850 
0.851 to 0.500 

501 lo 750 
0.751 to 1 500 



Tolerance — I nches 
IMus or M iiMjs 



0.0025 
. 0035 
005 
. 008 



Width 

Inches 



i> 000 to 4 000 



Tolerun -I fi< he* 
Plus or M i-ius 



-a 



*\\idths greater than 3.00 inch and/or area greater ihan 3 square inches. 
Maximum dimensions 1.5 inch 1> I inch. 
Available in sb greater than 1.5 inch; smaller sizes i old finished. 



I 



• 



f 






i 



80 



6 



b 



tm 



* • • A LI MINI \l COMPANY of AMERICA . « « 



I w,\,\ m COMMERCIAL TOLERANCES FOB WIRE 

I >\> \\\> BAR ALL ALLOYS Coniiiuu'd 

, . ii in i GROUND w l It K AND ROD, ROI XD (ALL ALLOYS) 



1 1 . i n ii • i . i 
1 1 



0,1 . o i. M 

I to I »00 
D| i,, iOO 



Tolerant <■ lot ln» 

I'lii 1 r Minn 



i) 0005 

no I 

001 



rABLEti 

IK-I .,ll 



COMMERCIAL TO! I RANC1 V\n -l/l - OF 
| OLLED ROUND CORNER, 5Q1 MIES \M> 

Hi I I W.I ES ALL ALIXn > 



Hi 



I litt'k i ■ ' 

I IK In I 



VVmIi 

I ii In 



* i, ig i 

9 i. i 

00 I 



' 



10 to 10 

^ to Ifl 

to 12 



I i . 1 1 i i nc i I n I 



I Iim k 

I 'Ins or M inu 






16 



\v,.i 

IMu 



Va 



\\\\\ i n I OMMERCIAL rOLERAN( I 3 \\l> SIZ1 >F 
II \ I I ENED WIRE \\l> Fl V I I EN1 D Wl' 

-I I r w [RE -All. \l LOYS 



» hi 

Indies 



illl 



• 



mum 




II \ i rENED Will 
(Round l 'lgt»«) 



lltn k r 1 1 ^-. 'S 



\\ i.ltli« 



i) ii in 

081 

II IH.I 

I) I 

i) 876 



it 
ii 


ii 

> 



040 
060 

Is 
B 

iHH) 



Polei 
ance 

i iii-» 

Mini 



o 





mil 

0O15 

004 



I >lllll 



I lll-f 

I 



\l h 

IIIMIII 



M i 



I r 



I v ll I M I » \ \ I ■ II \\ 

(Slil a) 



ii 007 
010 



Widths 



riih ki 



n oio 

.'i 

061 





1 



1 . 
ll 



.'ii 
1 

IM 



'1 

ii 004 



81 



i 



» 



» » 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 



« 



« 



I 



TABLE 28— MAXTMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES OF 

FLAT SHEET 2S AND 3S 



Thickness 

fnchee 



0.250-0.163 
0.162-0.129 
0.128-0 126 
0.125-0.094 
0.093-0.064 



0.063-0.040 



0.039-0.032 



Rolling Limits 



Width 
Inches 



Length 

Feet 



0.031-0.020 



0.019-0.014 
0.013-0.010 
0.009-0.005 



102 
102 
102 
102 
90 

f 84 
76 
60 

66 

60 

60 
54 

48 
36 
30 



24 

24 
24 
24 
24 




14 

20 

10 

](» 

12 
12 

8 



Stretcher Limits 



Width 
I riches 



90 
90 
90 
88 
86 



76 



* 



* 
* 

* 



Length 

Feet 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



20 



* 
* 
* 



Diameter 

of 
Circle 

Inches 



96 
96 
96 
96 
90 



84 



(if; 



6(1 



48 
36 
30 



Temper 

R a n pe 



o to y 2 u 
o to hu 

to H 
to H 
o to II 



O to M 



to M 



<> to II 



() to H** 
() to II** 
() to H 



*(ireater than rolling limits. 
**The minimum thickness for sheet in the ]4\^ temper is 0.016 inch. 



TABLE 29— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES OF STRONG ALLOY 

FLAT SHEET ITS, 24S*, 51S, 53S, ALCLAD ITS, AM) 

ALCLAD 24S*— O, W, AND T TEA! PER 



Thickness 


Width 


length 


1 

Diameter 


Klni< \\i'r 


Inches 


Inches 


Feet 


Inch's 


Maximum 


.250 to .126 inclusive 


102 


24 


96 


90" x 24' 


.125 to .094 inclusive 


102 


24 


96 


88" \ *r 


.093 to .064 inclusive 


90 


24 


90 


86" x 24' 


.063 to .051 inclusive 


72 


18 


72 


7< l 20' 


.050 to .040 inclusive 


60 


18 


60 


76" x 20' 


.039 to .032 inclusive 


48 


18 


48 


76" x 20' 


.031 to .020 inclusive 


42 


16 


42 


76" x 20' 


.019 to .014 inclusive 


36 


14 


36 


76* x 20' 


.013 to .010 inclusive 


28 


14 


28 


76" x 20' 



•Widths greater than 60* not strictly commercial in 24S and Alt-lad *4S; 
orders for greater widths in thicknesses 0.051* to 0.250* may 1> < cpU-d 
tentatively, contingent upon the development of atisfectoi t ornra ial 
manufacturing practice. 

Maximum size annealed sheet 96* x 24'. 



i 
i 
i 
i 






i 
i 

i 



82 



ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « « « 



TABLE 30— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL! SIZES OF FLAT SHEET 

4S AND 52S 



] In. knees 

I rich. -a 



Rolling Limits 



250-0 L6 

i) 102-0.12' 

us o 126 
125-0 094 

0.00: I 081 

0.080 0.064 
0«8 040 
080 088 

0.031-0 022 
0.081 "14 
0.013-0 010 



Wi.lth 
I nchesft 



Length 



Stretcher 
Limits** 



Width 
Inches 



102 

102 

102 

►0 

84 

Go 
48 

42 
36 

28 



24 

24 
24 
24 

24 

20 

14 

14 

12 

10 
8 



Lengl h 
Feet 



Diameter 
Inches 



90 

!)0 

90 

ss 



24 
24 
24 



Temper Range 



* 
* 



* 
* 
* 
* 



* 
* 



* 
* 



96 
96 
96 

9") 

84 
72 
60 
48 

42 
36 

28 



o to y 2 n 

O to %H 
O toH 
O toH 



O to H 
toH 
OtoH 
toH 


toH 
O to H*** 
to H*** 



*Gi itei than rolling limits. 
♦Mi rl harder than l / 2 \\ cannot be stretched. 
***The minimum thickness for sheet in the quarter hard (KH) temper is 

ii> inch 
\\\ idtha greater than 60 inches and/or weights of a single sheet greater than 
200 pounds are not strictly commercial in 52S alloy; orders for sheets great- 
than th< limits may be accepted tentatively, contingent upon develop- 
menl of satisfactory manufacturing practice. 
ttMaMiuum width of sheets in the hard lemper (H) is 54 inches and in the 
three-quaiiei hard temper (%H), 60 inches, 

TABLE 31— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES OF COILED SHEET 

2S, SS, AND 4S 

Supplied in coils, flattened and cut to length**, or in circles. 



1 hicknesa 
(Inches) 


Width 

(Inches) 


Available 
Tempers 


102-0 048 
O 1)47-0. 030 

029-0.024 

023 0.019 
01S-0.012 

0.011-0 010 
0.009-0.0085 
0.008-0 0075 
0.007-0.005 


42 

42* 

38* 

38 

36 

30 
30 
18 
14 


to H 
O to H 
O to H 
O, HH, %H, H 

o, y 2 n, y A n t h 

0, KH, KH, H 
O, %H, H 
O, MH, H 
O, %H, H 



*In the y\\ temper the maximum width is 4 inches less than this value 
which applies to all other tempers. 
♦♦Flattened coiled sheet is not supplied in thickness greater than 0.081 inch. 



83 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS « 



TABLE 32— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES 
Flat Sheet 17S-HT, 24S-RT, Ah lad 17S-RT and Alclad 24S-RT 



Thickness 
] nches 





() 

i) 



077 

042 
029 












07 s 

(0 
020 



Width (Ineh^) 



Lengths up to 14 feet 



30 
30 

24 

21 



Lent'tu!* It feel 
t<> 18 IWt 



20 



I Mi LE SS— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES 

TEMPERS -«S, 3S, 4S PLATE 



\\ \ii.\rli: 



I'llii k ficss 

I ii< ln-8 



and tt\ er 

Less than 2" to l" 

Less than 1 " to I ," 



Width 
fnchi 



130( 

ISO! 

L20 ' 



Length 

Kect 



30 'i 



J I •MifMTS 



As Moiled T.d (»i 

AsHolled >,Oi and ■ ,11 
AsHoIled(») f O(»). \ffi and UH 



(• The maximum diameter of circles in ihc O, II and ] II tempera ia 96 
inches. In tl rolled temper, in thicknes j lei than I inch to J { inch, 

the maximum diameter is 120 inch md in thicknesses l inch to i inch* 
the m:i \iiuijiii diameter is ISO inches 
Maximum size of annealed plate: 96 inches )>> 25 feet, 
\s a result of the cooling of the plate while it is being i oiled, there is 

me Btrain hardening of iIm* metal, particularly in the thinner gnu 
I h< average tensile properties of as-rolled plate in ihickn s up t< 
inch are approximately the same us tho <>f quarter hard plat* v tl 
thicl nese in< the properties approach tho ofthesofl tempei (O). 

SuhJL'd in the limitation thai tin maximum weight of an individual 
plate or i in le is 2,000 pounds. 

\< J I E: I lal n< — 

>in'i< her-leveled plate is supplied in thick™ s 34 inch to 1 ineh, widths up 

to 90 in< h< nd lengths up to ! t . 

Plate widei or longei than the limits for stretcher-leveled plate in thicknesses 

, inch to 1 inrh i upplied roller-leveled- 
Plat 4 in dimensions gn lei than the stretchei and roll* i l< veler limits 

ihi< kn« iii ler than I inch is supplied as flat as can be obi I from 

i he rolls 

I KBU A MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES STRONG ILL01 

ITS, 51S Wl S PI ATE 



I ltl< I 



Width 

I f i r 1 1 • 



Length 
Y 



I > i .« in 

r*U*r 



Siri'U K 



( 1 1 rig 



'•fill 



(10 Lo I .001 1*0 
1.000 t<. 5 1*0 

«» :;: j «<> i i< 



Si 



90 









00* x <£\ 



n tl T U 
O - II, T. W 



% 2*' III, \\ 



Narrower widths can be obtaii I in l< r lengths \m\ liould be taken uij 

VN ill] llj< !-• l-vt v,iJeK ItWli < 

Maximum *ize ofartifi i j.|.ii< 51S-1 arid >- 1 i im-fn-s I 

i I 

Notl r, l"|;.lri.- rid \ and 4 y of I abb npp] to 11 



1 



» » » ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA 



<x <c 



« 



TABLE 35— MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SIZES OF ALCOA TREAD 
PLATE— STRETCHER LEVELED— 3S, 4S, 17S AND 53S ALLOYSO) 



hi< knesa 


Maximum Size 


Approximate 

Weight per Sq. Ft. 

Pounds( 2 ) 


Estimated Weight 


Inches 


Width 
Inches 


Length 
Feet 


per Sq. Ft. in Steel 
Pounds 




50 
60 
60 
60 
60 


24 

24 
24 
24 
24 


1.96 
2.84 
3.72 

4 . CO 
5.48 


5.69 

8.23 

10.79 

13.32 

15.89 



I l ) All oa Tread Plate can be furnished in 17S, 4S, 3S and 53S alloys. Trea-I 
Plate in 17S is furnished only in the heat-treated temper (17S-T); in 4S 
it is furnished as rolled. Where niaximum strength is desired, 17S or 53^ 
are recomnn snd< d. 

( 2 ) Values are for 3S and 4S. Multiply by 1.02 for 17S, and 0.98 for 53S. 



TABLE 36 



CONDENSED LIST OF COMMERCIAL SIZES 
OF 17S STRUCTURAL SHAPES 



I QUAL 

A N G I l 



Size 

Inches 



Kg* % 



I X 1 

l^xlM 

l^xlK 

2 x 2 

2H x 2K 

3 x3 

33^x3H 



UNEQUAL ANGLES 



Size 
F nches 



Size 
Inches 



STRUCTURAL 
CHANNELS 



Depth 
Inches 



TEES 



1 X 

l%x 

IJ^X 



H 

3 





l^xl 

\y 2 x\ 



i^xik 

2 xlK 



4 x4 



x5 



6 \ i; 



2 xl^ 
2 xlM 



mxiy 2 



2KxlW 



2^2XlM 

2^x2 

3 xlM 

3 x2 



3 x23^ 

3 l Ax3 

4 x3 



4 
5 



x3' , 
x2M 



5 
5 



x3 

x3H 



6 x3l 



(> \ 4 



3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

1-2 



CAR 
CHANNELS 

5 

6 

10 



I-BEAMS 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



I I-BEAMS 
4 

5 

6 

8 



Size, Inches 
F!«nge Stem 



1 X 1 
l^XlM 



2 x2 

2^x2K 

2^xlM 



3 x2H 

3 x3 

4 x4 



ZEES 

Depth, Inches 

3 
4 

4 ' f 6 



Many of the above sections are obtainable in several dilferent llunge, web, or stem thick- 
nesses. Consult nearest sal« -» oflice. 

Elements of sections are given in "Structural Aluminum Handbook" published by Aluminum 

Company of America. 
Above list includes both Extruded and Rolled shapes 
Maximum length in a heat-treated alloy — Extruded Shape 36 Feet 

—Rolled Shape 85 Feet 



85 



J 



» 



» » 



ALCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« « 



« 



TABLE 37— RANGE OF COMMERCIAL SIZES OF ROUND TUBINC 



Thickness 



Stubs 
Gauge 



2 



> • 



4 



6 



• • 



8 



9 



Inchc- 



.500 
.484 
.480 
.468 

.453 
.450 
.437 
.4^1 

.406 

.400 
.390 

.375 

.359 
.350 
.344 
.328 

.320 
.312 
.300 
.297 

.284 
.281 

,«ee 

.259 

.250 
.238 
.234 
.220 

.218 
.203 
.187 
.180 

.171 
.}( 
.156 
.148 



Minimum 

O.D. 

Inches 



t - rfj Jj 
— — C*T 

N 



2H 



2H 



\ 




i 



2 




8 



% 

i 

% 

% 

% 
% 
% 

% 
% 

l A 
% 



Maximum O.D. f Indies 



in 




7% 
7 

7% 

7% 

7 

8% 

m 

7 

8% 
10 

9% 

7 
1(1 

7 

7 

10*% 

7 

10% 
10'% 

7 

10% 

7 

10% 
7 

10% 

101% 

10% 

7 

10% 

7 
10% 

7 



O 

I 

I 



1 




7% 

7 

7% 

7 
8% 

8% 

8% 

7 

H% 

10 

9% 

7 

10 

10% 

7 

10% 
7 

102% 

7 
10% 
10% 

7 

10% 

7 
10% 

7 

10% 

10'% 

103/ 2 
7 

10% 

7 
10% 
7 



E — — 

'}, X cc 

CI re CJ 

in 



9 

7 
9% 

9^2 
7 



0% 

0% 

7 

1% 
1 

0% 

7 

0% 

0% 

7 

0% 

0% 

7 
0% 




0% 
7 

0% 
7 

0% 

0% 
7 

o'% 

7 

0% 
7 



u 

1 1 1 



73 



C 



23 



7 
8% 

8% 
7 

8% 

8% 

9 

7 

' ^2 

OK 

o'% 

7 

' 8 

0% 

7 

0% 

7 
0% 

7 
0% 

0% 
7 

0% 
7 

0% 
7 

0% 
0'% 

0% 
7 

0% 

7 

0% 

7 



>^f N*J* >^* 

fZ cc t*z 

c£03Gft 



5% 
5% 

5h 

5^ 

5)2 
5% 

5% 

6 
6 
6 

GX 
6 ! g 

7 

7 1 

7 

7% 
7 

7 

9% 

7 

7 



10% 

7 

10% 

7 



SEX 



3% 
4 
4 
4 

4% 

'4 
.4 

4' 4 

*y 2 
w 2 

*y 2 

■ 

6 

\i 



7 
7 



715 



% 



10% 


8 


fa 


h * 


10% 


9% 


7 


7 



9"% 

7 

10 

7 



r — 
— in 



-1 



7 
10 

7 

05 

1% 

1% 
7 

1% 

1 

0% 

7 





7 

0% 

7 
0% 

7 





0% 

7 

7 

H 

0% 

0K2 
7 

o'% 

7 

0% 
7 



86 



» * » ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA « 



« « 



TABLE 37— RANGE OF COMMERCIAL SIZES OF ROUND TURING 

— Continued 



Thicknnsa 



Stubs 

' i.Uii 



10 

• • 

11 

12 
L8 

14 



15 

1C 



17 
18 

• ■ 

19 

21 

l> 

23 

24 

25 
26 

27 

28 
29 
30 

31 
32 



Inches 



.140 

.134 

.125 
.120 

.109 

095 

.093 

.083 

.078 
.072 
.065 
.062 

.058 

049 

.046 

.042 

.035 
.032 
.028 
.025 

.022 
020 
018 

.016 

.014 
1 3 
012 

. 1 
.009 



Minimum 

O.D. 

Inches 



r- X £ 

- * ?i 

N 



i 





Ke 
Hi 

Hi 




% 

% 

He 
He 

he 
He 
He 

He 

He 

He 

He 



x rA O 

"Ma 
99 S 

COCA 

1/3 



10% 

7 

7 

7 
l 




4 



8% 

7 

7 
9 

7 

7 

8% 
6% 

5 
4 

4 

3M 

3 

2% 

2^ 

1 
1 



z 

X 

— 
-i 



X 

r- 

— 



9% 

7 

3 




'4 



8% 

7 

SH 

7 

7 2 % 
6^ 

6M 




4 



6M 
5 

3% 

3M 

2M 
2% 
2H 

2 

m 

Ke 

Ke 



Maximum O.D., Inches 



5£ 

i 

<XX)X) 

<NOO<N 



10% 

7 
10^ 

7 

9*% 
7 

9K 

7 

8% 

7 

7 
9 

7 

7 

8% 
6M 

5 

4 
4 

3M 

3 

2M 



l 
l 



5i 



He 



C^ CO W 



10% 

7 
1 




7 

9% 

7 

9M 

7 

8 3 % 

7 

7 
9 

7 

7 

8% 




5 
4 
4 

3 

2% 

IK 

i 
i 







oo\eo\co\ 

c/bcflco 



10% 

7 

1034 

7 

9% 

7 

9^ 
7 

9 
7 
7 
9 

7 

7 

8% 
6M 

5 

4 
4 

3H 

3 

2% 
2 l A 

Hi 

i 

l 



5 




9 /fe 



cocox 

1/5 



9% 

7 

10K 

7 

9 ] % 
7 

9M 
7 

9 

7 
7 
9 

7 
7 

8% 

5 
4 
4 

sy 2 

3 
2M 

2M 
1M 

1 
1 




% 



;h 






/. 

M 
ID 






9% 

7 

8^ 
7 




7 

83^ 

7 

7% 
5 



3 





•4 

2M 




4 

2 

1^ 
% 

He 



3 



8 



He 
i 



3 u; 

i 



87 



__^ flH^B^H 



» » » 



\LCOA ALUMINUM and ITS ALLOYS 



« « 



TABLE 38— RANGE OF COMMERCIAL SIZES 

OF WIRE, ROD AND BAR 

2S, 3S, 17S, 24S, 51S, 52S, AND 53S 



COMMODITY 


SMALLEST 


LARGEST 




Diameter 
Inches 


Diameter 
Inches 


Round \\ ire — Drawn 


36 ga. 


0.874 


Hound Rod — Cold Finished 


Vs 


1 ] 2 


Bound Rod— Rolled 


H 


8 




Distance Across 

Flats, Inches 


1 >isfance Across 

Mats, Inches 


Square Wire — Drawn 


^X^ 


X Mk X 2 


Square Bar — Gold Finished* 


H x 1 y 2 


2 \ 2 


Hexagonal Wire — Drawn 


Ml 


'!. 


Hexagonal Bar — Cold Finished* 


Vs 


I 7 * 


Octagonal \N ire — Drawn 


M 


Va 


Octagonal Bar — Cold Finished 


Vs 


1 * ,« 




Dimensions 
] nches 


I tfmensioiia 

1 mhos 


quar< Edge Rectangular Wire — Drawn 


1 10 x M 


Va i 


quar< Edge Rectangular Bar, < lornimm 
\llov — ( lold Finished 


Iv, x :1 g 


1 ' , x 4 


Squar Edge Rectangular Bar, Strong Alios 
- ( lold Finished 


He x \ i 


t 


quare Eld Rectangular Bar — Boiled 


\i*H 


S x 10 


Bound Edge Be< t angular Bar — Rolled 


098 xVs \ 


, x (I 




Dimensions 

I riches 


! >f rrKMiHJotiH 
In<:hf!8 


Half Round Wire — Drawn 


^xj^ 6 


K * Hi 


Half Oval Wire Boiled 


Hi x 


%* 


Oval Bar — Gold Finished 


% x % 


16* 


Half Oval Bar -Boiled 


X«i 


i i! 



*A few of the larger sizes are rolled. 

t\\ idths up to 3.0 indies, provided cro ctional area is not greater than 
square inches. 

The above table in d icate s the range of commercial sizes. Intermediate sis 

are not all available. See Table 27 for sizes of flattened wire and flat I and 

slit wire. 



38 



■ 



I 



• 



► 



I 



* ALUMINUM COMPANY of AMERICA 



« 



« 



« 



TABLE 39— APPROXIMATE TEMPERS OF ROLLED BAR, 

ROD AND SHAPES— 2S. 3S. 52St 



inipe 



HuUIulS 

Squares 

Hexagons 
Octagons 



) 



Rectangles 



Structural Shapes 



Diameter or Least Distance 
Across Flats (Inches) 



Up to %" inclusive 
Greater than %" to \y 2 " 
Greater than \y 2 " to 3" 
Greater than 3" to 8" 



Approximate Temper* 



K oiled 



Gold Finished 



< 



fUp to y%" inclusive 
Greater than l /% " to y 2 
Greater than y to \y, 

[Greater than \y 2 " to 8" 

Standard Sizes 



y 2 n 

KH to y 2 H 

i 




// 



// 



y 8 n to mh 

%H to 3^H 

MH to y 2 n 

i 




HH to MH 
MH to 34H 



y 2 n to mh 

HH to Mil 

MH to KH 

HH to yn 

y 2 K to %H 

KH to MH 



Tempers hown are approximate. Mininiuni tensile strengths are not guaran- 
teed, but experience indicates that the tempers shown for various commodi- 
tiea may normally be expected. The small sizes tend to run harder than the 
large sizes, since they finish colder from the rolls; also, cold finishing intro- 
duces a greater percentage of reduction in cross-sectional area, hence more 
sin. in hardening. Typical or average properties (not minimum) for the variou 
alloys in the various tempers are shown in Table 10. 

f5£S is not produced in shapes. 



89 



. \LCO \ \\A Ml M M and ITS VI.L<n s 



« • 



1 N 1> E \ 



K\( Ittd |'f '«lu< ts 



31 



a 



n 



It Ml 

rid ii 



1M 









>u< 






( 



< 



( ; 


* 

fan* 

i i 

■ 

i ui'.M 






11 






. 


4 


v r 



if 



hitr 


■ 


1 l«l»t«1 v 




\1.i-ii*i.< 




• 








IfcMl ».j «. : |] 


Ii 1 


• 




.« i.l ihanM 




Irf*i«l pUu nUrtolMi i' 'Ind 




• 




.. 




|,< I '1 > 








UNM4 «i 




«|«t «i ir« dH «U< ^ 


1 






Mm* mud p4» • 









iii 






t 



■•» MBflm 




tWimwni ojuld fTliig 


♦• •* 


s» 


M M 


VN •ifUCi.t 


M 



Qditioiih fin brat ti l ni' nl 

il \ vl I Hi t * 

1 « » 1 1 < ii n 

( i 



.1M 



(.1 



tt I 



I' 






1 ii loll f I'l 



I).. 



hiii' mII 






i 



,1 



t f l< . i 1 II »ll<l«l< II "l\ 






I x t r u < 1 1 * 1 1 I 









I * ii 















M 



II ! I » kill 

II III 0MB1 



. 






o 1 1 H 



< 






i l_j«ui In .♦« t I r i til tru r*1 












IK 



" "i in— I will 






■'»► 



- 



M 



M« l i 






i 



Mitfli I iri» 






i 






i^^H 



M 






< 






M 

II 



i 



4 


















» \ LI M IM \l COM PA \ V of \ \! ER l< \ 



« « « 



M h ini i pi -|n 1 1 1» ( onlinued 






vv 



ill.-v produi !h 68, 69 

•lll'.y .1) 

» 1 H a l!o i 7 1 

72, • 

Bttl »,h 72 

p 1,1 

PI 6 68, 70 

Hi .1 6 

6 

67 
thing i 

hi ni 









Moduli] of du i, 






i ! ii 



1 1 



Plati 

in 



\ 



• 






: l 



1 1 1 f 1 I » I ' it f r i • i 









. 



i< 



It 

Rod 



HI 



ui\ K». 89 



Saihl 1.1 l<* ■ l I 

Sliaj 

sinn turnl i n«> 



Sh* 



,i ... 



Solution (nil < it menl 

pi mlu < 



Sp< !i» 



it) 



u. 



1 1 



Squares and r© tangli 68, o 2, 81 
Standard i ommodii i wr< night 

alio) 55 

Strain h.n«i<iir<l . i llo> i 16 i 

i i ; | I 1 1 1 . 1 1 

hapee i. .>. ■ ■ 



I 



rempei <l< • -.<- nation i 
I mp i foi 1. H , i od and 









I heoi v -.1 heal ti >im il 
I bei rn.il i i mduc 1 1 v it ^ 
Thei ma I expun i n 



i 1 1 of 



10 






I . 



M 



r i 



Bu 

i 1 1 . i .1 |. f ,, i 

Plata 



■ 






77 
81 

80 BJ 

ittm ami n- • let. H I 

iral n i. i pe«. rnll«d 

I llbinj i I atrmimlnia 78. 

Wim m 



i'l |>l;th 

rubing 



IB 



U 



w 



\\ eighl of ill- 

W elding 



61 



25 ■ 



Wirt 



f>8 



80 81, 88 



W rou^ht ill. »\ 



II f -iltr.y 

iiiihti i \ i f. rim* 
f us 



1 
17 19. 20. 57. 



^1 



VLUMINl'M COMPANY OF AMERICA 



F 



Sales Offices 



\ 



\LBA.\Y. \. \ 



90 Stale Street 



ATLANTA, GA. 



BOSTON MASS 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 



( HLICAGO, ILL. 



CINCINNATI, ollln 



< LE\ LL\M). <>!!!«> 



dl i roit, micii 



! URFIELD, CONN. 
HARTFORD, CONN.. 
[NDI VNAPOLIS, IM). 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 
LOS ANGEL1 U IF. 

M1LW U Kl.l. WIS. 

MI\M.\I'«»I.I\ MINN. 

NEWARK, IV. J. 
\L\\ ORLEANS, L\ 
\L\\ YORK, V \ . 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
PITTSBURGH, PA 

\\ I FlANCISt 0, CALII 
ST. LOl IS, M<). 

EATTLE. w ISIL 



TOLEDO uMJo 



IMS Bliodes-IIavert v Building 

20 Providence Street, Lark Squai 

. 1880 Elmwood Avenue 
,520 N". Michigan Avenue 



Times Star Building 



2210 Har\ard Avenue 

\\ 1 Dunn Bond 



Boston Post Road 

Capitol Building, 410 Asylum Street 

?ig Merchant! Bank Building 
2306 Power & Light Building 



1081 g Broadway 



735 N. Wat. i Street 

1345 Nor t liwestern Bank Building 



111! Acadenj) Luilding 



815 American Bank Building 

280 Park Aveeu 
2307 Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Building 

( iiiir Building 

709 Rialto Buildin 

is*,> Boatmei I ik I uildin 
. . 1005 White Bt ling 

915 Ohio Bank Building 



I 

to 
I? 

to 

to 



w Asnj\(/io\ i) 



'\t iili- rn I'milding ftj 




nrkw applied Mumicjuru < amy of ktneri 

* tCtl Hliifl ( MTcih** the nj'/hl 

process H prodii of Alcoa Aluminum from 

f tibuntp 04 to the form and h . »l 

uru bud alufujuum alloys, m iry ootfiflaercial form 







i m No M 'M S 36 

Wir©-o Bindin. < jU-i<u J'eudiny 



#*j in l »> 






*